12 research outputs found

    Austin Owen Lecture: The National Export Strategy

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    The Honorable Raymond E. Vickery, Jr., presented this address as The Fourth Annual Austin Owen Lecture on October 5, 1995. The Honorable Austin E. Owen attended Richmond College from 1946-47 and received his law degree from the T.C. Williams School of Law in 1950. During his distinguished career, Judge Owen served as the Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia, was a partner in Owen, Guy, Rhodes, Betz, Smith and Dickerson and was appointed Judge of the Second Judicial Circuit of Virginia where he served until his retirement in 1990. In 1991, Judge Owen\u27s daughter, Dr. Judith O. Hopkins, W\u2774, and son-in-law, Dr. Marbry B. Hopkins, R\u2774, established the Austin Owen Lecture which is held each fall at the Law School. The Law School community grieved the loss of this distinguishedalumnus upon his death in March, 1995

    Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

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    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level

    Proteomic biomarkers in kidney disease: issues in development and implementation

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    Proteomic biomarkers offer the hope of improving the management of patients with kidney diseases by enabling more accurate and earlier detection of renal pathology than is possible with currently available biomarkers, serum creatinine and urinary albumin. In addition, proteomic biomarkers could also be useful to define the most suitable therapeutic targets in a given patient or disease setting. This Review describes the current status of proteomic and protein biomarkers in the context of kidney diseases. The valuable lessons learned from early clinical studies of potential proteomic biomarkers in kidney disease are presented to give context to the newly identified biomarkers, which have potential for actual clinical implementation. This article also includes an overview of protein-based biomarker candidates that are undergoing development for use in nephrology, focusing on those with the greatest potential for clinical implementation. Relevant issues and problems associated with the discovery, validation and clinical application of proteomic biomarkers are discussed, along with suggestions for solutions that might help to guide the design of future proteomic studies. These improvements might remove some of the current obstacles to the utilization of proteomic biomarkers, with potentially beneficial results

    Atmosphere Impact Losses

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    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth’s formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth’s formation, but Earth’s early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth’s formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the He3/22Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (mcap≳2ρ0(πhR)3/2, rcap∼25km for the current Earth), that are able to eject all the atmosphere above the tangent plane of the impact site, where h, R and ρ0 are the atmospheric scale height, radius of the target, and its atmospheric density at the ground. 3) Small impactors (mmin> 4 πρ0h3, rmin∼1km for the current Earth), that are only able to eject a fraction of the atmospheric mass above the tangent plane. We demonstrate that per unit impactor mass, small impactors with rmin< r< rcap are the most efficient impactors in eroding the atmosphere. In fact for the current atmospheric mass of the Earth, they are more than five orders of magnitude more efficient (per unit impactor mass) than giant impacts, implying that atmospheric mass loss must have been common. The enormous atmospheric mass loss efficiency of small impactors is due to the fact that most of their impact energy and momentum is directly available for local mass loss, where as in the giant impact regime a lot of energy and momentum is ’wasted’ by having to create a strong shock that can transverse the entirety of the planet such that global atmospheric loss can be achieved. In the absence of any volatile delivery and outgassing, we show that the population of late impactors inferred from the lunar cratering record containing 0.1% M⊕ is able to erode the entire current Earth’s atmosphere implying that an interplay of erosion, outgassing and volatile delivery is likely responsible for determining the atmospheric mass and composition of the early Earth. Combining geochemical observations with impact models suggest an interesting synergy between small and big impacts, where giant impacts create large magma oceans and small and larger impacts drive the atmospheric loss

    Knowing how much you don't know: a neural organization of uncertainty estimates

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    Occurrence and Characteristics of Oils and Fats

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    The systemic nature of CKD

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    International audienceThe accurate definition and staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major achievements of modern nephrology. Intensive research is now being undertaken to unravel the risk factors and pathophysiologic underpinnings of this disease. In particular, the relationships between the kidney and other organs have been comprehensively investigated in experimental and clinical studies in the last two decades. Owing to technological and analytical limitations, these links have been studied with a reductionist approach focusing on two organs at a time, such as the heart and the kidney or the bone and the kidney. Here, we discuss studies that highlight the complex and systemic nature of CKD. Energy balance, innate immunity and neuroendocrine signalling are highly integrated biological phenomena. The diseased kidney disrupts such integration and generates a high-risk phenotype with a clinical profile encompassing inflammation, protein-energy wasting, altered function of the autonomic and central nervous systems and cardiopulmonary, vascular and bone diseases. A systems biology approach to CKD using omics techniques will hopefully enable in-depth study of the pathophysiology of this systemic disease, and has the potential to unravel critical pathways that can be targeted for CKD prevention and therapy

    What Explains Observed Reluctance to Trade? A Comprehensive Literature Review

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