408 research outputs found

    Pixel detector hybridisation with Anisotropic Conductive Films

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    Hybrid pixel detectors require a reliable and cost-effective interconnect technology adapted to the pitch and die sizes of the respective applications. During the ASIC and sensor R&D phase, and in general for small-scale applications, such interconnect technologies need to be suitable for the assembly of single-dies, typically available from Multi-Project-Wafer submissions. Within the CERN EP R&D programme and the AIDAinnova collaboration, innovative hybridisation concepts targeting vertex-detector applications at future colliders are under development. This contribution presents recent results of a newly developed in-house single-die interconnection process based on Anisotropic Conductive Film (ACF). The ACF interconnect technology replaces the solder bumps with conductive particles embedded in an adhesive film. The electro-mechanical connection between the sensor and the read-out chip is achieved via thermo-compression of the ACF using a flip-chip device bonder. A specific pad topology is required to enable the connection via conductive particles and create cavities into which excess epoxy can flow. This pixel-pad topology is achieved with an in-house Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG) plating process that is also under development within the project. The ENIG and ACF processes are qualified with the Timepix3 ASIC and sensors, with 55 um pixel pitch and 14 um pad diameter. The ACF technology can also be used for ASIC-PCB/FPC integration, replacing wire bonding or large-pitch solder bumping techniques. This contribution introduces the ENIG plating and ACF processes and presents recent results on Timepix3 hybrid assemblies

    Development of novel low-mass module concepts based on MALTA monolithic pixel sensors

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    The MALTA CMOS monolithic silicon pixel sensors has been developed in the Tower 180 nm CMOS imaging process. It includes an asynchronous readout scheme and complies with the ATLAS inner tracker requirements for the HL-LHC. Several 4-chip MALTA modules have been built using Al wedge wire bonding to demonstrate the direct transfer of data from chip-to-chip and to read out the data of the entire module via one chip only. Novel technologies such as Anisotropic Conductive Films (ACF) and nanowires have been investigated to build a compact module. A lightweight flex with 17 {\mu}m trace spacing has been designed, allowing compact packaging with a direct attachment of the chip connection pads to the flex using these interconnection technologies. This contribution shows the current state of our work towards a flexible, low material, dense and reliable packaging and modularization of pixel detectors.Comment: 5 pages + 1 page references,8 figure

    Charge Collection and Electrical Characterization of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Pad Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

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    The replacement of the existing endcap calorimeter in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), scheduled for 2027, will be a high granularity calorimeter. It will provide detailed position, energy, and timing information on electromagnetic and hadronic showers in the immense pileup of the HL-LHC. The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will use 120-, 200-, and 300-μm\mu\textrm{m} thick silicon (Si) pad sensors as the main active material and will sustain 1-MeV neutron equivalent fluences up to about 1016 neqcm210^{16}~\textrm{n}_\textrm{eq}\textrm{cm}^{-2}. In order to address the performance degradation of the Si detectors caused by the intense radiation environment, irradiation campaigns of test diode samples from 8-inch and 6-inch wafers were performed in two reactors. Characterization of the electrical and charge collection properties after irradiation involved both bulk polarities for the three sensor thicknesses. Since the Si sensors will be operated at -30 ^\circC to reduce increasing bulk leakage current with fluence, the charge collection investigation of 30 irradiated samples was carried out with the infrared-TCT setup at -30 ^\circC. TCAD simulation results at the lower fluences are in close agreement with the experimental results and provide predictions of sensor performance for the lower fluence regions not covered by the experimental study. All investigated sensors display 60%\% or higher charge collection efficiency at their respective highest lifetime fluences when operated at 800 V, and display above 90%\% at the lowest fluence, at 600 V. The collected charge close to the fluence of 1016 neqcm210^{16}~\textrm{n}_\textrm{eq}\textrm{cm}^{-2} exceeds 1 fC at voltages beyond 800 V.Comment: 36 pages, 34 figure

    20 ps Time Resolution with a Fully-Efficient Monolithic Silicon Pixel Detector without Internal Gain Layer

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    A second monolithic silicon pixel prototype was produced for the MONOLITH project. The ASIC contains a matrix of hexagonal pixels with 100 {\mu}m pitch, readout by a low-noise and very fast SiGe HBT frontend electronics. Wafers with 50 {\mu}m thick epilayer of 350 {\Omega}cm resistivity were used to produce a fully depleted sensor. Laboratory and testbeam measurements of the analog channels present in the pixel matrix show that the sensor has a 130 V wide bias-voltage operation plateau at which the efficiency is 99.8%. Although this prototype does not include an internal gain layer, the design optimised for timing of the sensor and the front-end electronics provides a time resolutions of 20 ps.Comment: 11 pages, 11 figure

    Testbeam Results of the Picosecond Avalanche Detector Proof-Of-Concept Prototype

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    The proof-of-concept prototype of the Picosecond Avalanche Detector, a multi-PN junction monolithic silicon detector with continuous gain layer deep in the sensor depleted region, was tested with a beam of 180 GeV pions at the CERN SPS. The prototype features low noise and fast SiGe BiCMOS frontend electronics and hexagonal pixels with 100 {\mu}m pitch. At a sensor bias voltage of 125 V, the detector provides full efficiency and average time resolution of 30, 25 and 17 ps in the overall pixel area for a power consumption of 0.4, 0.9 and 2.7 W/cm^2, respectively. In this first prototype the time resolution depends significantly on the distance from the center of the pixel, varying at the highest power consumption measured between 13 ps at the center of the pixel and 25 ps in the inter-pixel region

    Radiation Tolerance of SiGe BiCMOS Monolithic Silicon Pixel Detectors without Internal Gain Layer

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    A monolithic silicon pixel prototype produced for the MONOLITH ERC Advanced project was irradiated with 70 MeV protons up to a fluence of 1 x 10^16 1 MeV n_eq/cm^2. The ASIC contains a matrix of hexagonal pixels with 100 {\mu}m pitch, readout by low-noise and very fast SiGe HBT frontend electronics. Wafers with 50 {\mu}m thick epilayer with a resistivity of 350 {\Omega}cm were used to produce a fully depleted sensor. Laboratory tests conducted with a 90Sr source show that the detector works satisfactorily after irradiation. The signal-to-noise ratio is not seen to change up to fluence of 6 x 10^14 n_eq /cm^2 . The signal time jitter was estimated as the ratio between the voltage noise and the signal slope at threshold. At -35 {^\circ}C, sensor bias voltage of 200 V and frontend power consumption of 0.9 W/cm^2, the time jitter of the most-probable signal amplitude was estimated to be 21 ps for proton fluence up to 6 x 10 n_eq/cm^2 and 57 ps at 1 x 10^16 n_eq/cm^2 . Increasing the sensor bias to 250 V and the analog voltage of the preamplifier from 1.8 to 2.0 V provides a time jitter of 40 ps at 1 x 10^16 n_eq/cm^2.Comment: Submitted to JINS

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+μ+νW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and WμνW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector