2,748 research outputs found

    AMP-Activated Kinase AMPK Is Expressed in Boar Spermatozoa and Regulates Motility

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    The main functions of spermatozoa required for fertilization are dependent on the energy status and metabolism. AMP-activated kinase, AMPK, acts a sensor and regulator of cell metabolism. As AMPK studies have been focused on somatic cells, our aim was to investigate the expression of AMPK protein in spermatozoa and its possible role in regulating motility. Spermatozoa from boar ejaculates were isolated and incubated under different conditions (38,5°C or 17°C, basal medium TBM or medium with Ca2+ and bicarbonate TCM, time from 1–24 hours) in presence or absence of AMPK inhibitor, compound C (CC, 30 ”M). Western blotting reveals that AMPK is expressed in boar spermatozoa at relatively higher levels than in somatic cells. AMPK phosphorylation (activation) in spermatozoa is temperature-dependent, as it is undetectable at semen preservation temperature (17°C) and increases at 38,5°C in a time-dependent manner. AMPK phosphorylation is independent of the presence of Ca2+ and/or bicarbonate in the medium. We confirm that CC effectively blocks AMPK phosphorylation in boar spermatozoa. Analysis of spermatozoa motility by CASA shows that CC treatment either in TBM or in TCM causes a significant reduction of any spermatozoa motility parameter in a time-dependent manner. Thus, AMPK inhibition significantly decreases the percentages of motile and rapid spermatozoa, significantly reduces spermatozoa velocities VAP, VCL and affects other motility parameters and coefficients. CC treatment does not cause additional side effects in spermatozoa that might lead to a lower viability even at 24 h incubation. Our results show that AMPK is expressed in spermatozoa at high levels and is phosphorylated under physiological conditions. Moreover, our study suggests that AMPK regulates a relevant function of spermatozoa, motility, which is essential for their ultimate role of fertilization

    Quark helicity distributions in the nucleon for up, down, and strange quarks from semi--inclusive deep--inelastic scattering

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    Polarized deep--inelastic scattering data on longitudinally polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets have been used to determine double spin asymmetries of cross sections. Inclusive and semi--inclusive asymmetries for the production of positive and negative pions from hydrogen were obtained in a re--analysis of previously published data. Inclusive and semi--inclusive asymmetries for the production of negative and positive pions and kaons were measured on a polarized deuterium target. The separate helicity densities for the up and down quarks and the anti--up, anti--down, and strange sea quarks were computed from these asymmetries in a ``leading order'' QCD analysis. The polarization of the up--quark is positive and that of the down--quark is negative. All extracted sea quark polarizations are consistent with zero, and the light quark sea helicity densities are flavor symmetric within the experimental uncertainties. First and second moments of the extracted quark helicity densities in the measured range are consistent with fits of inclusive data

    Evidence for a narrow |S|=1 baryon state at a mass of 1528 MeV in quasi-real photoproduction

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    Evidence for a narrow baryon state is found in quasi-real photoproduction on a deuterium target through the decay channel p K^0_S --> p pi^+ pi^-. A peak is observed in the p K^0_S invariant mass spectrum at 1528 +/- 2.6 (stat) +/-2.1 (syst) MeV. Depending on the background model,the naive statistical significance of the peak is 4--6 standard deviations and its width may be somewhat larger than the experimental resolution of sigma=4.3 -- 6.2 MeV. This state may be interpreted as the predicted S=+1 exotic Theta^{+}(uuddbar(s)) pentaquark baryon. No signal for an hypothetical Theta^{++} baryon was observed in the pK^+ invariant mass distribution. The absence of such a signal indicates that an isotensor Theta is excluded and an isovector Theta is unlikely.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

    Exclusive Leptoproduction of rho^0 Mesons from Hydrogen at Intermediate Virtual Photon Energies

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    Measurements of the cross section for exclusive virtual-photoproduction of rho^0 mesons from hydrogen are reported. The data were collected by the HERMES experiment using 27.5 GeV positrons incident on a hydrogen gas target in the HERA storage ring. The invariant mass W of the photon-nucleon system ranges from 4.0 to 6.0 GeV, while the negative squared four-momentum Q^2 of the virtual photon varies from 0.7 to 5.0 GeV^2. The present data together with most of the previous data at W > 4 GeV are well described by a model that infers the W-dependence of the cross section from the dependence on the Bjorken scaling variable x of the unpolarized structure function for deep-inelastic scattering. In addition, a model calculation based on Off-Forward Parton Distributions gives a fairly good account of the longitudinal component of the rho^0 production cross section for Q^2 > 2 GeV^2.Comment: 10 pages, 6 embedded figures, LaTeX for SVJour(epj) document class. Revisions: curves added to Fig. 1, several clarifications added to tex

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses 20.3 fb−1 of √ s = 8 TeV data collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events are required to have at least one jet with pT > 120 GeV and no leptons. Nine signal regions are considered with increasing missing transverse momentum requirements between Emiss T > 150 GeV and Emiss T > 700 GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model expectations. The results are translated into exclusion limits on models with either large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark matter candidates, or production of very light gravitinos in a gauge-mediated supersymmetric model. In addition, limits on the production of an invisibly decaying Higgs-like boson leading to similar topologies in the final state are presente

    Search for direct pair production of the top squark in all-hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at s√=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector