44 research outputs found

    LSST: from Science Drivers to Reference Design and Anticipated Data Products

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    (Abridged) We describe here the most ambitious survey currently planned in the optical, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). A vast array of science will be enabled by a single wide-deep-fast sky survey, and LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: probing dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. LSST will be a wide-field ground-based system sited at Cerro Pach\'{o}n in northern Chile. The telescope will have an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg2^2 field of view, and a 3.2 Gigapixel camera. The standard observing sequence will consist of pairs of 15-second exposures in a given field, with two such visits in each pointing in a given night. With these repeats, the LSST system is capable of imaging about 10,000 square degrees of sky in a single filter in three nights. The typical 5ŌÉ\sigma point-source depth in a single visit in rr will be ‚ąľ24.5\sim 24.5 (AB). The project is in the construction phase and will begin regular survey operations by 2022. The survey area will be contained within 30,000 deg2^2 with őī<+34.5‚ąė\delta<+34.5^\circ, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizyugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320--1050 nm. About 90\% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will uniformly observe a 18,000 deg2^2 region about 800 times (summed over all six bands) during the anticipated 10 years of operations, and yield a coadded map to r‚ąľ27.5r\sim27.5. The remaining 10\% of the observing time will be allocated to projects such as a Very Deep and Fast time domain survey. The goal is to make LSST data products, including a relational database of about 32 trillion observations of 40 billion objects, available to the public and scientists around the world.Comment: 57 pages, 32 color figures, version with high-resolution figures available from https://www.lsst.org/overvie

    Clinical Validation of PITX2 DNA Methylation to Predict Outcome in High-Risk Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy

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    Background: Breast cancer patients at high risk for recurrence are treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, but not all patients do equally benefit from such a regimen. To further improve therapy decision-making, biomarkers predicting outcome are of high unmet medical need. Methods: The percent DNA methylation ratio (PMR) of the promoter gene coding for the Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) was determined by a validated methylation-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The multicenter study was conducted in routinely collected archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue from 205 lymph node-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Results: The cut-off for the PITX2 methylation status (PMR = 12) was confirmed in a randomly selected cohort (n = 60) and validated (n = 145) prospectively with disease-free survival (DFS) at the 10-year follow-up. DFS was significantly different between the PMR ‚ȧ 12 versus the PMR > 12 group with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.74 (p < 0.001) in the validation cohort and also for the patient subgroup treated additionally with endocrine therapy (HR 2.47; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Early-stage lymph node-positive breast cancer patients with low PITX2 methylation do benefit from adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Patients with a high PITX2 DNA methylation ratio, approximately 30%, show poor outcome and should thus be considered for alternative chemotherapy regimens

    Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium: Accelerating Evidence-Based Practice of Genomic Medicine

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    Despite rapid technical progress and demonstrable effectiveness for some types of diagnosis and therapy, much remains to be learned about clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) and its role within the practice of medicine. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) consortium includes 18 extramural research projects, one National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project, and a coordinating center funded by the NHGRI and National Cancer Institute. The consortium is exploring analytic and clinical validity and utility, as well as the ethical, legal, and social implications of sequencing via multidisciplinary approaches; it has thus far recruited 5,577 participants across a spectrum of symptomatic and healthy children and adults by utilizing both germline and cancer sequencing. The CSER consortium is analyzing data and creating publically available procedures and tools related to participant preferences and consent, variant classification, disclosure and management of primary and secondary findings, health outcomes, and integration with electronic health records. Future research directions will refine measures of clinical utility of CGES in both germline and somatic testing, evaluate the use of CGES for screening in healthy individuals, explore the penetrance of pathogenic variants through extensive phenotyping, reduce discordances in public databases of genes and variants, examine social and ethnic disparities in the provision of genomics services, explore regulatory issues, and estimate the value and downstream costs of sequencing. The CSER consortium has established a shared community of research sites by using diverse approaches to pursue the evidence-based development of best practices in genomic medicine

    Observational spatial memory in wolves and dogs.

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    Social learning is highly adaptive in transmitting essential information between individuals in many species. While several mechanisms have been observed, less is known about how much animals can remember. However, results on observational spatial memory among caching species, i.e. a form of social learning allowing individuals to remember and pilfer food caches made by others, suggest that this ability correlates with their social organization. Both wolves and their domesticated form, dogs, are social species known to make food caches, and previous studies have shown that they both can use observational spatial memory abilities to find hidden food. In order to test how much socially transmitted information wolves and dogs can remember, we tested both species in a task requiring them to find 4, 6 or 8 caches after they observed a human hiding food items, or after a control condition where they could not observe the hiding. We found that both wolves and dogs retrieved more caches and were more efficient for the first few caches if they observed the hiding than in the control condition, suggesting that they did not simply rely on scent to find the rewards. Interestingly, wolves outperformed dogs irrespective of whether the caching could be observed or not. We suggest that this result is due to a difference in motivation/persistence between wolves and dogs rather than observational spatial memory


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    Abstract A new BPM (Beam Position Monitor) electronics is under development and in good progress at NSLS-II. This in-house BPM receiver with many new features is comparable to commercial solution. BPM data for fast orbit feedback (FOFB) is one of the most important physics applications. The procedure to use BPM for FOFB is introduced firstly. Then, different BPM data flows associated with different physics requirements and applications are discussed. And control implementation of BPM system for physics applications is presented