817 research outputs found

    Stability properties of an inverse parabolic problem with unknown boundaries

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    We treat the stability issue for an inverse problem arising from nondestructive evaluation by thermal imaging. We consider the determination of an unknown portion of the boundary of a thermic conducting body by overdetermined boundary data for a parabolic initial-boundary value problem.We obtain that when the unknown part of the boundary is a priori known to be smooth, the data are as regular as possible and all possible measurements are taken into account, the problem is exponentially ill-posed. Then, we prove that a single measurement with some a priori information on the unknown part of the boundary and minimal assumptions on the data, in particular on the thermal conductivity, is enough to have stable determination of the unknown boundary. Given the exponential illposedness, the stability estimate obtained is optimal

    The enclosure method for the heat equation

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    This paper shows how the enclosure method which was originally introduced for elliptic equations can be applied to inverse initial boundary value problems for parabolic equations. For the purpose a prototype of inverse initial boundary value problems whose governing equation is the heat equation is considered. An explicit method to extract an approximation of the value of the support function at a given direction of unknown discontinuity embedded in a heat conductive body from the temperature for a suitable heat flux on the lateral boundary for a fixed observation time is given.Comment: 12pages. This is the final versio

    Multiple genome relationships and a complex biogeographic history in the eastern range of Quercus suber L. (Fagaceae) implied by nuclear and chloroplast DNA variation

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    The complex evolutionary history of Quercus suber has been throughly investigated in many recent works, but the details of its differentiation processes are still largely unknown. In addition, the geographical and evolutionary roles of the eastern parts of the species range have gained much less attention compared to other southern European areas. In order to fill this gap, new insights to infer the species diversification and range establishment of the cork oak in the east-central Mediterranean are here provided by means of inter- and intra-specific plastid DNA and nuclear ribosomal ITS phylogeographic studies. We analyzed 95 natural cork oak populations; 6 closely related, sympatric oaks were included in the study and used for comparisons.Evidence for a clear phylogeographical structure was detected with PCR-RFLP at 5 chloroplast loci, while ITS sequence variation is apparently unrelated with the geographical distribution. Five chloroplast haplotypes and three ITS main lineages were identified. Three haplotypes and all ITS lineages occur in the Italian Peninsula, stressing the importance of these territories for the evolutionary history of the species. Two divergent "Italian" haplotypes are highly shared, and one ITS variant is basal to the ingroup, revealing sister relationships within Cerris taxonomic group. Hypotheses of hybridization, lineage sorting of ancient DNA polymorphisms and of reticulate evolution of the whole species group are presented and discussed

    Molecular assays for the detection of microRNAs in prostate cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (about 21 to 24 nucleotides in length) that effectively reduce the translation of their target mRNAs. Several studies have shown miRNAs to be differentially expressed in prostate cancer, many of which are found in fragile regions of chromosomes. Expression profiles of miRNAs can provide information to separate malignancies based upon stage, progression and prognosis. Here we describe research prototype assays that detect a number of miRNA sequences with high analytical sensitivity and specificity, including miR-21, miR-182, miR-221 and miR-222, which were identified through expression profiling experiments with prostate cancer specimens. The miRNAs were isolated, amplified and quantified using magnetic bead-based target capture and a modified form of Transcription-Mediated Amplification (TMA).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Analytical sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated in model system experiments using synthetic mature microRNAs or <it>in vitro </it>miRNA hairpin precursor transcripts. Research prototype assays for miR-21, miR-182, miR-221 and miR-222 provided analytical sensitivities ranging from 50 to 500 copies of target per reaction in sample transport medium. Specific capture and detection of mature miR-221 from complex samples was demonstrated in total RNA isolated from human prostate cancer cell lines and xenografts.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Research prototype real-time TMA assays for microRNAs provide accurate and reproducible quantitation using 10 nanograms of input total RNA. These assays can also be used directly with tissue specimens, without the need for a preanalytic RNA isolation step, and thus provide a high-throughput method of microRNA profiling in clinical specimens.</p

    The stability for the Cauchy problem for elliptic equations

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    We discuss the ill-posed Cauchy problem for elliptic equations, which is pervasive in inverse boundary value problems modeled by elliptic equations. We provide essentially optimal stability results, in wide generality and under substantially minimal assumptions. As a general scheme in our arguments, we show that all such stability results can be derived by the use of a single building brick, the three-spheres inequality.Comment: 57 pages, review articl

    Dietary protein restriction inhibits tumor growth in human xenograft models of prostate and breast cancer

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    Purpose: Data from epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dietary protein intake may play a role in inhibiting prostate and breast cancer by modulating the IGF/AKT/mTOR pathway. In this study we investigated the effects of diets with different protein content or quality on prostate and breast cancer. Experimental Design: To test our hypothesis we assessed the inhibitory effect of protein diet restriction on prostate and breast cancer growth, serum PSA and IGF-1 concentrations, mTOR activity and epigenetic markers, by using human xenograft cancer models. Results: Our results showed a 70% inhibition of tumor growth in the castrate-resistant LuCaP23.1 prostate cancer model and a 56% inhibition in the WHIM16 breast cancer model fed with a 7% protein diet when compared to an isocaloric 21% protein diet. Inhibition of tumor growth correlated, in the LuCaP23.1 model, with decreased serum PSA and IGF-1 levels, down-regulation of mTORC1 activity, decreased cell proliferation as indicated by Ki67 staining, and reduction in epigenetic markers of prostate cancer progression, including the histone methyltransferase EZH2 and the associated histone mark H3K27me3. In addition, we observed that modifications of dietary protein quality, independently of protein quantity, decreased tumor growth. A diet containing 20% plant protein inhibited tumor weight by 37% as compared to a 20% animal dairy protein diet. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a reduction in dietary protein intake is highly effective in inhibiting tumor growth in human xenograft prostate and breast cancer models, possibly through the inhibition of the IGF/AKT/mTOR pathway and epigenetic modifications
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