1,766 research outputs found

    GEM Detectors for the CMS Endcap Muon System: status of three new detector stations

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    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC, or Phase 2 LHC) will deliver proton-proton collisions at 5-7.5 times the nominal LHC luminosity, with an expected number of 140-200 pp-interactions per bunch crossing (Pile-up or PU). To maintain the performance of muon triggering and reconstruction under high background radiation, the forward part of the Muon spectrometer of the CMS experiment will be upgraded with Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) and improved Resistive Plate Chambers (iRPC) detectors. A first GEM station (GE1/1) was installed during long-shutdown 2 (LS2, 2019-2021), a 2nd^{\text{nd}} station (GE2/1) of Triple-GEM detectors will be installed in winter 2023-24 and 2024-25, while a new 6-layer station (ME0) will be installed in the third long shutdown (LS3, 2026-2028). GE11 is considered an early Phase 2 upgrade as it will reduce the pTp_{T} threshold by combining GEM and Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) hits in the forward muon system at twice the LHC design luminosity (L=2‚čÖ1034\mathcal{L} = 2 \cdot 10^{34} cm‚ąí2^{-2}s‚ąí1^{-1}, 50 PU). After a successful start of Run 3 in 2022, with almost 40 fb‚ąí1^{-1} collected, the commissioning of the GE1/1 detector is nearly complete. Most chambers are operated stabily with an efficiency in excess of 95%, next being the demonstration of the combined CSC-GEM trigger in 2023. The lessons learnt with the first large-area GEM station have lead to improvements in detector and electronics design for the Phase 2 detectors GE2/1 and ME0. This proceeding will discuss the progress made since last MPGD Conference (MPGD 2019), discussing the commissioning and early performance of GE1/1; the design improvements and start of construction of GE2/1; and the R&D currently ongoing for ME0.Comment: The 7th International Conference on Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors, MPGD202

    Production and characterization of random electrode sectorization in GEM foils

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    In triple-GEM detectors, the segmentation of GEM foils in electrically independent sectors allows reducing the probability of discharge damage to the detector and improving the detector rate capability; however, a segmented foil presents thin dead regions in the separation between two sectors and the segmentation pattern has to be manually aligned with the GEM hole pattern during the foil manufacturing, a procedure potentially sensitive to errors. We describe the production and characterization of triple-GEM detectors produced with an innovative GEM foil segmentation technique, the ``random hole segmentation'', that allows an easier manufacturing of segmented GEM foils. The electrical stability to high voltage and the gain uniformity of a random-hole segmented triple-GEM prototype are measured. The results of a test beam on a prototype assembled for the Phase-2 GEM upgrade of the CMS experiment are also presented; a high-statistics efficiency measurement shows that the random hole segmentation can limit the efficiency loss of the detector in the areas between two sectors, making it a viable alternative to blank segmentation for the GEM foil manufacturing of large-area detector systems

    Tests of multigap RPCs for high-eta triggers in CMS

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    In this paper, we report a systematic study of multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) for high-eta triggers in CMS. Prototype RPC modules with four- and six-gap structures have been constructed with phenolic high-pressure-laminated (HPL) plates and tested with cosmic muons and gamma rays irradiated from a 200-mCi Cs-137 source. The detector characteristics of the prototype multigap RPCs were compared with those of the double-gap RPCs currently used in the CMS experiment at LHC. The mean values for detector charges of cosmic-muon signals drawn in the four- and six-gap RPCs for the efficiency values in the middle of the plateau were about 1.5 and 0.9 pC, respectively, when digitized with charge thresholds of 150 and 100 fC, respectively. They were respectively about one third and one fifth of that drawn in the current CMS double-gap RPC with a charge threshold of 200 fC. We concluded from the current R&D that use of the current phenolic-HPL multigap RPCs is advantageous to the high-eta triggers in CMS in virtue of the smaller detector pulses

    Towards a muon collider

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    A muon collider would enable the big jump ahead in energy reach that is needed for a fruitful exploration of fundamental interactions. The challenges of producing muon collisions at high luminosity and 10 TeV centre of mass energy are being investigated by the recently-formed International Muon Collider Collaboration. This Review summarises the status and the recent advances on muon colliders design, physics and detector studies. The aim is to provide a global perspective of the field and to outline directions for future work

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an