4 research outputs found

    Transcription Factor ATF4 Induces NLRP1 Inflammasome Expression during Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

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    <div><p>Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis triggers the ER stress response (also known as Unfolded Protein Response), a hallmark of many pathological disorders. However the connection between ER stress and inflammation remains largely unexplored. Recent data suggest that ER stress controls the activity of inflammasomes, key signaling platforms that mediate innate immune responses. Here we report that expression of NLRP1, a core inflammasome component, is specifically up-regulated during severe ER stress conditions in human cell lines. Both IRE1α and PERK, but not the ATF6 pathway, modulate <i>NLRP1</i> gene expression. Furthermore, using mutagenesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing technology, we demonstrate that ATF4 transcription factor directly binds to <i>NLRP1</i> promoter during ER stress. Although involved in different types of inflammatory responses, XBP-1 splicing was not required for <i>NLRP1</i> induction. This study provides further evidence that links ER stress with innate</p></div

    NLRP1 mRNA and protein are up-regulated upon ER stress.

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    <p>(A) Un-differentiated THP-1 cells were treated with the indicated stimuli for 6 hours. NLRP1 levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using cyclophillin A as an endogenous control. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR using a different NLRP1 primer set and GAPDH as a control is also shown. (B) HeLa cells were treated either with BFA or TG for the indicated times. NLRP1 mRNA levels were measured by qPCR and RT-PCR. Spliced and un-spliced XBP-1 forms were also evaluated by RT-PCR. (C) HCT116 cells were treated with the indicated stimuli for 24 hours. NLRP1 and NOD1 mRNA levels were measured by qPCR. (D) Cell lysates from wild-type or <i>NLRP1</i><sup><i>−/−</i></sup> HeLa, THP-1 and K562 cells, untreated or treated with BFA for 20 hours, were normalized for total protein content. Cell extracts were then subjected to SDS-PAGE/immunoblot analysis before and after immunoprecipitation with NLRP1 antibody. Vinculin was detected as loading control. NLRP1 mRNA levels were also measured by RT-PCR. Each panel is representative of at least three independent experiments. (DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide, TM: tunicamycin, TG: thapsigargin, MSU: monosodium urate crystals, BFA: brefeldin A, PolyI:C: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, FLA: flagellin, MDP: muramyl dipeptide, R837: Imiquimod)</p

    Atf4 but not Xbp-1s stimulates <i>NLRP1</i> gene expression during ER stress.

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    <p>(A) HeLa cells were infected with increasing concentrations of murine Xbp-1s and Atf4 adenovirus for 24 hours and NLRP1 mRNA was measured by qPCR. (B) IRE1α, PERK, ATF6 and XBP-1s were down-regulated using siRNA in HeLa cells. Cells were treated with BFA for 20 hours and mRNA levels were measured by qPCR. IRE1α, PERK, ATF6 and XBP-1s knock-down was verified by SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Each panel is representative of at least three independent experiments.</p

    NLRP1 mRNA up-regulation is dependent on both IRE1α and PERK pathways.

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    <p>(A) IRE1α, PERK and ATF6 levels were reduced using siRNA. Upon treatment with ER stress, mRNA levels were measured by qPCR and RT-PCR. IRE1α, PERK and ATF6 knock-down was verified by SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. (B) Stably transduced HeLa cells were cultured in presence or absence of doxycycline (Dox) for 24 hours and then treated overnight with 2μM BFA. mRNA levels were measured by qPCR and RT-PCR. IRE1α, PERK and ATF6 knock-down was verified by SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Each panel is representative of at least three independent experiments.</p
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