4,359 research outputs found

    Finding a Z → 2 jets signal in W+3 jets events at CDF

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    The observation of WZ associated production at the Tevatron in a final state with a lepton, missing transverse energy and jets is difficult since the signal rate is low and competes with a huge background. In an attempt to increase the acceptance, the sample where three high-energy jets are reconstructed is investigated. In this sample, which within our event selection cuts includes 1/3 of the diboson signal events, rather than choosing the two transverse energy(ET) leading jets to detect a Z signal, the information carried by all jets is combined

    Correspondence between Jordan-Einstein frames and Palatini-metric formalisms

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    We discuss the conformal symmetry between Jordan and Einstein frames considering their relations with the metric and Palatini formalisms for modified gravity. Appropriate conformal transformations are taken into account leading to the evident connection between the gravitational actions in the two mentioned frames and the Hilbert-Einstein action with a cosmological constant. We show that the apparent differences between Palatini and metric formalisms strictly depend on the representation while the number of degrees of freedom is preserved. This means that the dynamical content of both formalism is identical.Comment: 6 pages, to appear in Mod. Phys. Lett.

    Atogepant for the Prevention of Episodic Migraine in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Efficacy and Safety

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    Introduction: The inhibition of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway has attracted interest in pharmacological research on migraine. Atogepant is a potent, selective, orally available antagonist of the CGRP receptor approved as a preventive treatment of episodic migraine. This systematic review with meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of atogepant for the prevention of episodic migraine in adult patients. Methods: Randomized, placebo-controlled, single or double-blinded trials were identified through a systematic literature search (December week 4, 2021). Main outcomes included the changes from baseline in monthly migraine days and the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and treatment withdrawal due to AEs. Mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated. Results: Two trials were included, overall enrolling 1550 patients. A total of 408 participants were randomized to placebo, 314 to atogepant 10 mg, 411 to atogepant 30 mg, and 417 to atogepant 60 mg once daily. The mean age of the patients was 41.0 years and 87.7% were women. The reduction in the mean number of migraine days from baseline across the 12-week treatment period was significantly greater among patients treated with atogepant at either the daily dose of 10 mg (MD − 1.16, 95% CI − 1.60 to − 0.73, p < 0.001), 30 mg (MD − 1.15, 95% CI − 1.54 to − 0.76, p < 0.001), or 60 mg (MD − 1.20, 95% CI − 2.18 to − 0.22, p = 0.016) than with placebo. There were no differences in the occurrence of AEs and drug withdrawal due to AEs between atogepant and placebo groups. Constipation was more commonly observed in patients treated with atogepant at 30 mg/day than placebo (RR 5.19, 95% CI 2.00–13.46; p = 0.001). Treatment with atogepant at the daily dose of 60 mg was associated with a higher risk of constipation (RR 4.92, 95% CI 1.89–12.79; p = 0.001) and nausea (RR 2.73, 95% CI 1.47–5.06; p = 0.001) than placebo. Conclusion: Atogepant is an efficacious and overall well-tolerated treatment for the prevention of episodic migraine in adults

    Her2 signaling and breast cancer stem cells: The bridge behind her2-positive breast cancer aggressiveness and therapy refractoriness

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    HER2 overexpression/amplification occurs in 15–20% of breast cancers (BCs) and identifies a highly aggressive BC subtype. Recent clinical progress has increased the cure rates of limited-stage HER2-positive BC and significantly prolonged overall survival in patients with advanced disease; however, drug resistance and tumor recurrence remain major concerns. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase knowledge regarding HER2 biology and implement available treatments. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subset of malignant cells capable of unlimited self-renewal and differentiation and are mainly considered to contribute to tumor onset, aggressiveness, metastasis, and treatment resistance. Seminal studies have highlighted the key role of altered HER2 signaling in the maintenance/enrichment of breast CSCs (BCSCs) and elucidated its bidirectional communication with stemness-related pathways, such as the Notch and Wingless/β-catenin cascades. d16HER2, a splice variant of full-length HER2 mRNA, has been identified as one of the most oncogenic HER2 isoform significantly implicated in tumorigenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)/stemness and the response to targeted therapy. In addition, expression of a heterogeneous collection of HER2 truncated carboxy-terminal fragments (CTFs), collectively known as p95HER2, identifies a peculiar subgroup of HER2-positive BC with poor prognosis, with the p95HER2 variants being able to regulate CSC features. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current evidence regarding HER2-/d16HER2-/p95HER2-positive BCSCs in the context of the signaling pathways governing their properties and describes the future prospects for targeting these components to achieve long-lasting tumor control

    The Distribution of Mass in the Orion Dwarf Galaxy

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    Dwarf galaxies are good candidates to investigate the nature of Dark Matter, because their kinematics are dominated by this component down to small galactocentric radii. We present here the results of detailed kinematic analysis and mass modelling of the Orion dwarf galaxy, for which we derive a high quality and high resolution rotation curve that contains negligible non-circular motions and we correct it for the asymmetric drift. Moreover, we leverage the proximity (D = 5.4 kpc) and convenient inclination (47{\deg}) to produce reliable mass models of this system. We find that the Universal Rotation Curve mass model (Freeman disk + Burkert halo + gas disk) fits the observational data accurately. In contrast, the NFW halo + Freeman disk + gas disk mass model is unable to reproduce the observed Rotation Curve, a common outcome in dwarf galaxies. Finally, we attempt to fit the data with a MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) prescription. With the present data and with the present assumptions on distance, stellar mass, constant inclination and reliability of the gaseous mass, the MOND "amplification" of the baryonic component appears to be too small to mimic the required "dark component". The Orion dwarf reveals a cored DM density distribution and a possible tension between observations and the canonical MOND formalism.Comment: 8 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Starving leukemia to induce differentiation

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    A new study shows that fasting induces the differentiation and elimination of some types of leukemia in mice, which implicates fasting or its mimetics as a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease

    Can anthocyanin presence ameliorate the photosynthetic performance of Prunus saplings subjected to polyethylene glycol-simulated water stress?

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    The aim was the evaluation of the biochemical and physiological responses of green- (GP) and red-leafed (RP) Prunus cerasifera mature leaves to 20 d of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)-induced water stress in order to elucidate a possible ameliorative role exerted by anthocyanins. At 10 d, the anthocyanin content remained unchanged in RP water-stressed leaves. Photosynthetic rate was lower in GP than that of RP (83.4 vs. 76.5%, respectively), paralleled by a higher degree of photoinhibition (Fv/Fm) in GP leaves. Leaves of GP accounted for higher content of soluble sugars at 10 d, when RP only showed a slight sucrose increase. At 20 d of stress, both morphs recovered their Fv/Fm values, suggesting the ability of both genotypes to adjust their photosynthetic metabolism under conditions of water stress. In conclusion, besides the sunscreen role served by anthocyanins, the carbon sink by these flavonoids might have further prevented sugar accumulation and the consequent sugar-promoted feedback regulation of photosynthesis in drought-stressed red leaves

    Weighing the prognostic role of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with metastatic solid tumors: the HYPNOSIS study

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    Previous works linked low sodium concentration with mortality risk in cancer. We aimed at weighing the prognostic impact of hyponatremia in all consecutive patients with metastatic solid tumors admitted in a two-years period at our medical oncology department. Patients were included in two cohorts based on serum sodium concentration on admission. A total of 1025 patients were included, of whom 279 (27.2%) were found to be hyponatremic. The highest prevalence of hyponatremia was observed in biliary tract (51%), prostate (45%) and small-cell lung cancer (38.9%). With a median follow-up of 26.9 months, median OS was 2 months and 13.2 months for the hyponatremia versus control cohort, respectively (HR, 2.65; P < 0.001). In the multivariable model, hyponatremia was independently associated with poorer OS (HR, 1.66; P < 0.001). According to the multivariable model, a nomogram system was developed and validated in an external set of patients. We weighed over time the influence of hyponatremia on survival of patients with metastatic solid tumors and pointed out the possibility to exploit serum sodium assessment to design integrated prognostic tools. Our study also highlights the need for a deeper characterization of the biological role of extracellular sodium levels in tumor development and progression
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