39 research outputs found

    Replication: Towards a Publicly Available Internet scale IP Geolocation Dataset

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    International audienceIP geolocation is one of the most widely used forms of metadata for IP addresses, and despite almost twenty years of effort from the research community, the reality is that there is no accurate, complete, up-to-date, and explainable publicly available dataset for IP geolocation. We argue that a central reason for this state of affairs is the impressive results from prior publications, both in terms of accuracy and coverage: up to street level accuracy and locating millions of IP addresses with a few hundred vantage points in months. We believe the community would substantially benefit from a public baseline dataset and code. To encourage future research in IP geolocation, we replicate two geolocation techniques and evaluate their accuracy and coverage. We show that we can neither use the first technique to obtain the previously claimed street level accuracy, nor the second to geolocate millions of IP addresses on today's Internet and with publicly available measurement infrastructure. In addition to this reappraisal, we re-evaluate the fundamental insights that led to these prior results, as well as provide new insights and recommendations to help the design of future geolocation techniques. All of our code and data are publicly available to support reproducibility

    FELIX-Based Readout of the Single-Phase ProtoDUNE Detector

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    Contains fulltext : 205823.pdf (publisher's version ) (Open Access

    FELIX based readout of the Single-Phase ProtoDUNE detector

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    Large liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) have been adopted for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) experiment's far detector, which will be composed of four 17-kton detectors situated 1.5 km underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This represents a large increase in scale compared to existing experiments. Both single- and dual-phase technologies will be validated at CERN, in cryostats capable of accommodating full-size detector modules, and exposed to low-energy charged particle beams. This program, called ProtoDUNE, also allows for extensive tests of data acquisition strategies. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) readout system was initially developed within the ATLAS collaboration and is based on custom field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based Peripheral Component Interconnect Express input/output cards, connected through point-to-point links to the detector front end and hosted in commodity servers. FELIX will be used in the single-phase ProtoDUNE setup to read the data coming from 2560 anode wires organized in a single anode plane assembly (APS) structure. With a continuous readout at a sampling rate of 2 MHz, the system must deal with an input rate of 96 Gb/s. An external trigger will preselect time windows of 5 ms with interesting activity expected inside the detector. Event building will occur for triggered events, at a target rate of 25 Hz; the readout system will form fragments from the data samples matching the time window, carry out lossless compression, and forward the data to event building nodes over 10-Gb/s Ethernet. This paper discusses the design and implementation of this readout system as well as the first operational experience.Large liquid argon Time Projection Chambers have been adopted for the DUNE experiment's far detector, which will be composed of four 17 kton detectors situated 1.5 km underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This represents a large increase in scale compared to existing experiments. Both single- and dual-phase technologies will be validated at CERN, in cryostats capable of accommodating full-size detector modules, and exposed to low-energy charged particle beams. This programme, called ProtoDUNE, also allows for extensive tests of data acquisition strategies. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) readout system was initially developed within the ATLAS collaboration and is based on custom FPGA-based PCIe I/O cards, connected through point-to-point links to the detector front-end and hosted in commodity servers. FELIX will be used in the single-phase ProtoDUNE setup to read the data coming from 2560 anode wires organized in a single Anode Plane Assembly structure. With a continuous readout at a sampling rate of 2 MHz, the system must deal with an input rate of 96 Gb/s. An external trigger will preselect time windows of 5 ms with interesting activity expected inside the detector. Event building will occur for triggered events, at a target rate of 25 Hz; the readout system will form fragments from the data samples matching the time window, carry out lossless compression, and forward the data to event building nodes over 10 Gb/s Ethernet. This paper discusses the design and implementation of this readout system as well as first operational experience

    Felix Based Readout of The Single-Phase Protodune Detector

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    The liquid argon Time Projection Chamber technique has matured and is now in use by several short-baseline neutrino experiments. This technology will be used in the long-baseline DUNE experiment; however, this experiment represents a large increase in scale, for which the technology needs to be validated explicitly. To this end, both the single-phase and dual-phase implementations of the technology are being tested at CERN in two full-scale (10 × 10 × 10 m3) ProtoDUNE setups. Besides the detector technology, these setups also allow for extensive tests of readout strategies. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) system was initially developed within the ATLAS collaboration and is based on custom FPGA-based PCIe I/O cards in combination with commodity servers. FELIX will be used in the single-phase ProtoDUNE setup to read the data coming from 2560 anode wires organized in a single Anode Plane Assembly structure. With a sampling rate of 2 MHz, the system must buffer and process an input rate of 74 Gb/s. Event building requests will arrive at a target rate of 25 Hz, and loss-less compression must reduce the data within the requested time windows before it is sent to the experiment’s event building farm. This paper discusses the design of the system as well as first operational experiences
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