41 research outputs found

    Outsourced Psychiatry: Experts Still Relevant

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    The News Focus story on global mental health, “Who needs psychiatrists?” (G. Miller, 16 March, p. 1294), implied that the answer is “no one.” This is not the case. It is true that clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of talking therapies for depression, anxiety, and other common mental disorders, when delivered by nonpsychiatrist health workers trained by professionals. Severely ill individuals (such as those with refractory depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia) require medication, which can be administered safely by nurses, family doctors, and even health workers supervised by medical personnel. Investing in community health workers as mental health gatekeepers is the safest national strategy for sustainable mental health programs, for the reasons mentioned in the News Focus story as well as an additional one: Community health workers are not as susceptible to “brain drain”—the emigration of skilled workers for better working conditions—as health professionals

    Lay health worker led intervention for depressive and anxiety disorders in India: impact on clinical and disability outcomes over 12 months.

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    BACKGROUND: Depressive and anxiety disorders (common mental disorders) are the most common psychiatric condition encountered in primary healthcare. AIMS: To test the effectiveness of an intervention led by lay health counsellors in primary care settings (the MANAS intervention) to improve the outcomes of people with common mental disorders. METHOD: Twenty-four primary care facilities (12 public, 12 private) in Goa (India) were randomised to provide either collaborative stepped care or enhanced usual care to adults who screened positive for common mental disorders. Participants were assessed at 2, 6 and 12 months for presence of ICD-10 common mental disorders, the severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety, suicidal behaviour and disability levels. All analyses were intention to treat and carried out separately for private and public facilities and adjusted for the design. The trial has been registered with clinical trials.gov (NCT00446407). RESULTS: A total of 2796 participants were recruited. In public facilities, the intervention was consistently associated with strong beneficial effects over the 12 months on all outcomes. There was a 30% decrease in the prevalence of common mental disorders among those with baseline ICD-10 diagnoses (risk ratio (RR) = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92); and a similar effect among the subgroup of participants with depression (RR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.98). Suicide attempts/plans showed a 36% reduction over 12 months (RR=0.64, 95% CI0.42–0.98) among baseline ICD-10 cases. Strong effects were observed on days out of work and psychological morbidity, and modest effects on overall disability [corrected]. In contrast, there was little evidence of impact of the intervention on any outcome among participants attending private facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Trained lay counsellors working within a collaborative-care model can reduce prevalence of common mental disorders, suicidal behaviour, psychological morbidity and disability days among those attending public primary care facilities

    Modifying Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Peripartum Adolescents in Sub-Saharan African Context: Reviewing Differential Contextual and Implementation Considerations

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    Background: This study describes adaptation and modification of World Health Organization (WHO) recommended group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) for depressed peripartum adolescents. The adaptation process includes accommodating contextual factors and strategies to address intervention implementation barriers, such as engagement problems with adolescents, caregivers, and providers, and stigma and dearth of mental health specialists. The modifications include and adolescent relevant iterations to the therapy format and content. Methods: A multi-stakeholder led two-stage intervention adaptation and modification process integrating mixed qualitative methods were used with pregnant and parenting adolescents, their partners, and health care workers. In-depth interviews focusing on personal, relationship, social, and cultural barriers experienced by adolescents were carried out modeled on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Focus group discussions with depressed adolescents on their experiences, feedback from caregivers, partners, health workers inform focused modifications. An IPT expert committee of three practitioners, along with UNICEF adolescent officer, and mental health policy expert from Ministry of Health and representative community advisory body reviewed the adaptations and modifications made to the WHO IPT-G manual. Discussion: Integration of mental health needs of peripartum adolescents as demonstrated in the stakeholder engagement process, adaptation of key terms into locally relevant language, determination of number of sessions, and user-centric design modifications to digitize a brief version of group interpersonal psychotherapy are presented

    Global Mental Health and Nutrition: Moving Toward a Convergent Research Agenda.

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    Both malnutrition and poor mental health are leading sources of global mortality, disease, and disability. The fields of global food security and nutrition (FSN) and mental health have historically been seen as separate fields of research. Each have undergone substantial transformation, especially from clinical, primary care orientations to wider, sociopolitical approaches to achieve Sustainable Development Goals. In recent years, the trajectories of research on mental health and FSN are further evolving into an intersection of evidence. FSN impacts mental health through various pathways such as food insecurity and nutrients important for neurotransmission. Mental health drives FSN outcomes, for example through loss of motivation and caregiving capacities. They are also linked through a complex and interrelated set of determinants. However, the heterogeneity of the evidence base limits inferences about these important dynamics. Furthermore, interdisciplinary projects and programmes are gaining ground in methodology and impact, but further guidance in integration is much needed. An evidence-driven conceptual framework should inform hypothesis testing and programme implementation. The intersection of mental health and FSN can be an opportunity to invest holistically in advancing thinking in both fields

    Depressed Parents’ Treatment Needs And Children’s Problems In An Urban Family Medicine Practice

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    Objective: The study examined interest in treatment and treatment preferences and obstacles of low-income depressed parents. Methods: A total of 273 primarily low-income, Hispanic parents of children aged seven to 17 attending an urban family medicine practice agreed to complete a survey by interview or self-report, including screening diagnoses and treatment history. Three groups were compared: major, subthreshold, and no depression. Results: Nearly one-third had major (9%) or sub-threshold depression (23%), and many in the depressed groups reported recent treatment (50% and 31%, respectively). Parents with any depression were significantly more likely than nondepressed parents to report interest in receiving help, endorse treatment obstacles, and report children’s problems. Conclusions: High rates of personal and child problems, interest in treatment, and treatment obstacles among low-income, depressed parents highlight the need to develop acceptable mental health services for them and their children, even when parents do not meet full diagnostic criteria for depression

    Systematic evidence and gap map of research linking food security and nutrition to mental health.

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    Connections between food security and nutrition (FSN) and mental health have been analytically investigated, but conclusions are difficult to draw given the breadth of literature. Furthermore, there is little guidance for continued research. We searched three databases for analytical studies linking FSN to mental health. Out of 30,896 records, we characterized and mapped 1945 studies onto an interactive Evidence and Gap Map (EGM). In these studies, anthropometry (especially BMI) and diets were most linked to mental health (predominantly depression). There were fewer studies on infant and young child feeding, birth outcomes, and nutrient biomarkers related to anxiety, stress, and mental well-being. Two-thirds of studies hypothesized FSN measures as the exposure influencing mental health outcomes. Most studies were observational, followed by systematic reviews as the next largest category of study. One-third of studies were carried out in low- and middle-income countries. This map visualizes the extent and nature of analytical studies relating FSN to mental health and may be useful in guiding future research

    Remission Of Maternal Depression And Child Symptoms Among Single Mothers: A Star*d-child Report

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    Objective: Offspring of depressed parents are at increased risk for depressive and other disorders. We recently found that when depressed mothers reached full remission over 3 months of treatment, a significant improvement in the children’s disorders occurred. Since only a third of the mothers remitted, factors related to maternal remission rates, and thereby child outcomes, were important. This report examined the relationship of the presence of a father in the household to maternal depression remission and child outcomes. Method: Maternal depression was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17); social functioning was assessed using the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report (SAS-SR). Children (age 7–17) were assessed independently, blind to maternal outcome, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-PL) and the Child Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Results: Single mothers (n = 50), as compared to those in two-parent households (n = 61), were more likely to discontinue treatment (31% vs. 16%, P = 0.04), and less likely to remit if they remained in treatment (20% vs. 43%, P = 0.013). These differences remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic status and potential confounders, but were partially explained by the mother’s pre-treatment social functioning. The reduction in child diagnoses following maternal remission was greater in two-parent than in single-parent households, although a formal test of interaction between the odds ratios was not significant. Conclusion: Single depressed mothers are more likely to drop out of treatment, and less likely to reach remission if they stay in treatment. This high-risk group requires vigorous treatment approaches

    Improving access to psychological treatments: lessons from developing countries.

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    Even though psychological treatments have been advocated as treatments for a range of mental disorders by the WHO for scaling up through primary care globally, the vast majority of potential beneficiaries are unable to access these treatments. Two major barriers impede the path between evidence based treatments and improved access: the lack of skilled human resources and the acceptability of treatments across cultures. This essay synthesizes the experiences of programs which developed and evaluated psychological treatments for depression in three resource poor developing countries. These programs addressed the human resource barrier by training lay or community health workers to deliver the treatments and addressed the acceptability barrier by systematically adapting the treatment to contextual factors. All programs demonstrated significant benefits in recovery rates when compared with usual care demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach. The implications for these experiences to improving access to psychological treatments in the global context are discussed

    Interpersonal Psychotherapy: Evaluation, Support, Triage: Ipt-est

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    Depression is highly prevalent and debilitating among medically ill patients. As high as one third of the primary practise patients screen positive for depression symptoms and over half of the patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder are treated in primary care. However, current primary care service arrangements do not efficiently triage patients who screen positive for depression into appropriate treatments that reflect their individual needs and preferences. In this paper, we describe a tool that aims to fill the gap between screening the patients for depression and triaging them to appropriate care. This is a three-session adaptation of interpersonal psychotherapy: ipt; evaluation, support, triage (IPT-EST). We first outline IPT-EST procedures that aim to provide structure and content to primary care practitioners who identify patients with positive depression symptoms, thus assisting the practitioners to explore the patients' psychosocial triggers of depression, give basic strategies to manage these interpersonal stressors and provide decisions tools about triaging patients with severe/persistent depression into appropriate treatment