111 research outputs found

    TRPV1 Receptor Identification in Rainbow Trout (<i>Oncorhynchus mykiss</i>) and Evaluation of the Effects Produced by <i>Ocimum basilicum</i> Super Critical Fluid Extract

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    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been investigated in humans and mammals; in recent years, some researchers have focused on this receptor in fishes. The present study aimed to identify TRPV1 receptors in cultures of RT-gill W1 cells and in the organs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), in addition to evaluating the possible modulation induced by super critical fluid extract of basil (Ocimum basilicum), named F1-BEO. In vitro evaluation consisted of cell cultures and immunocytochemistry assays. During in vivo experimental sessions, eighty trout were divided into five groups that received a fish diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3% w/w F1-BEO. Forty trout were euthanized after 15 and 30 days; organs were collected and processed according to the immunohistochemistry technique. Receptor expression was quantitatively measured using Image Pro Plus software. TRPV1 was identified in RT-gill W1 cells and in all organs, with a higher positivity in the muscle layers of the stomach, intestine and kidneys. F1-BEO induced an increased expression of TRPV1 in the stomach while a lower expression was appreciated in the bowel. No morphological alterations have been highlighted in the liver or kidneys. Further investigation will be necessary to evaluate the functionality of this receptor in rainbow trout

    Distribution of Exonic Variants in Glycogen Synthesis and Catabolism Genes in Late Onset Pompe Disease (LOPD)

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    Pompe disease (PD) is a monogenic autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of the GAA gene encoding lysosomal alpha-glucosidase; its loss causes glycogen storage in lysosomes, mainly in the muscular tissue. The genotype-phenotype correlation has been extensively discussed, and caution is recommended when interpreting the clinical significance of any mutation in a single patient. As there is no evidence that environmental factors can modulate the phenotype, the observed clinical variability in PD suggests that genetic variants other than pathogenic GAA mutations influence the mechanisms of muscle damage/repair and the overall clinical picture. Genes encoding proteins involved in glycogen synthesis and catabolism may represent excellent candidates as phenotypic modifiers of PD. The genes analyzed for glycogen synthesis included UGP2, glycogenin (GYG1-muscle, GYG2, and other tissues), glycogen synthase (GYS1-muscle and GYS2-liver), GBE1, EPM2A, NHLRC1, GSK3A, and GSK3B. The only enzyme involved in glycogen catabolism in lysosomes is alpha-glucosidase, which is encoded by GAA, while two cytoplasmic enzymes, phosphorylase (PYGB-brain, PGL-liver, and PYGM-muscle) and glycogen debranching (AGL) are needed to obtain glucose 1-phosphate or free glucose. Here, we report the potentially relevant variants in genes related to glycogen synthesis and catabolism, identified by whole exome sequencing in a group of 30 patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD). In our exploratory analysis, we observed a reduced number of variants in the genes expressed in muscles versus the genes expressed in other tissues, but we did not find a single variant that strongly affected the phenotype. From our work, it also appears that the current clinical scores used in LOPD do not describe muscle impairment with enough qualitative/quantitative details to correlate it with genes that, even with a slightly reduced function due to genetic variants, impact the phenotype

    Comparative cardiac macroscopic and microscopic study in cats with hyperthyroidism vs. cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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    Hyperthyroidism is considered the most common endocrinopathy in middle-aged and old cats. The increased level of thyroid hormones influences many organs, including the heart. Cardiac functional and structural abnormalities in cats with hyperthyroidism have indeed been previously described. Nonetheless, myocardial vasculature has not been subjected to analysis. Also, no comparison with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been previously described. Although it has been shown that clinical alterations resolve after the treatment of hyperthyroidism, no detailed data have been published on the cardiac pathological or histopathological image of field cases of hyperthyroid cats that received pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac pathological changes in feline hyperthyroidism and to compare them to alterations present in cardiac hypertrophy due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats. The study was conducted on 40 feline hearts divided into three groups: 17 hearts from cats suffering from hyperthyroidism, 13 hearts from cats suffering from idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 10 hearts from cats without cardiac or thyroid disease. A detailed pathological and histopathological examination was performed. Cats with hyperthyroidism showed no ventricular wall hypertrophy in contrast to cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nonetheless, histological alterations were similarly advanced in both diseases. Moreover, in hyperthyroid cats more prominent vascular alterations were noted. In contrast to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the histological changes in hyperthyroid cats involved all ventricular walls and not mainly the left ventricle. Our study showed that despite normal cardiac wall thickness, cats with hyperthyroidism show severe structural changes in the myocardium.</p

    TRPV1 Receptor Identification in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Evaluation of the Effects Produced by Ocimum basilicum Super Critical Fluid Extract

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    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been investigated in humans and mammals; in recent years, some researchers have focused on this receptor in fishes. The present study aimed to identify TRPV1 receptors in cultures of RT-gill W1 cells and in the organs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), in addition to evaluating the possible modulation induced by super critical fluid extract of basil (Ocimum basilicum), named F1-BEO. In vitro evaluation consisted of cell cultures and immunocytochemistry assays. During in vivo experimental sessions, eighty trout were divided into five groups that received a fish diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3% w/w F1-BEO. Forty trout were euthanized after 15 and 30 days; organs were collected and processed according to the immunohistochemistry technique. Receptor expression was quantitatively measured using Image Pro Plus software. TRPV1 was identified in RT-gill W1 cells and in all organs, with a higher positivity in the muscle layers of the stomach, intestine and kidneys. F1-BEO induced an increased expression of TRPV1 in the stomach while a lower expression was appreciated in the bowel. No morphological alterations have been highlighted in the liver or kidneys. Further investigation will be necessary to evaluate the functionality of this receptor in rainbow trout

    Evaluation of Side Effects and Long-Term Protection of a Sustained-Release Injectable Moxidectin Formulation against Dirofilaria immitis Infection in Dogs: An Observational-In Field Multicentric Study

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    SIMPLE SUMMARY: The sustained-release moxidectin formulation of Afilaria SR is labelled to prevent Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs for a period of six months. An observational—in field multicentric study was design to evaluate the tolerability and the long-term prevention of Afilaria SR in Italy. A total of 583 dogs were recruited from 2018 to 2021, receiving the drug annually and monitored by veterinary practitioners after each administration. Antigenic tests were performed 210, 365, 730, and 1095 days after the administration of the drug. None of the enrolled dogs was detected as positive, since it was possible to establish that 100% of protection was achieved. Afilaria SR was well tolerated since only the 13% of dogs demonstrated mild reaction in the injection site and only two dogs out of 583 demonstrated anaphylactoid or angioneurotic reactions. These data support the high prevention rate against Dirofilaria immitis disease in all enrolled dogs and indicate the high safety profile of the product, considering the low number and the low grade of side effects. ABSTRACT: The sustained-release moxidectin formulation Afilaria SR is a relatively new product and has been labelled to prevent Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs for a six months-period. An observational, in field multicentric study was performed, aiming to evaluate the tolerability and the long-term prevention of Afilaria SR in Italy, a country where filariasis is endemic. The study was designed to include not less than 300 dogs, older than 6 months, of any breed. Side effects were recorded by veterinarians and antigenic tests were performed after 210, 365, 730, and 1095 days after the administration of the drug. A total of 583 dogs were recruited from 2018 to 2021 and all of them were negative with respect to antigenic tests at all time points, indicating that 100% of protection was achieved. Ranking of adverse reactions and correlation to patient features were analyzed using descriptive statistics and χ2 square test, respectively. Afilaria SR was well tolerated: 13% of dogs experienced mild reactions and only two dogs out of 583 (0.3%) demonstrated anaphylactoid/angioneurotic reactions, resolved administering corticosteroids. These data support that Afilaria SR prevented Dirofilaria immitis disease in all enrolled dogs and the low number and the low grade of side effects indicate the high safety profile of the product
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