632 research outputs found

    Maternal Diet during Lactation and Breast-feeding Practices have Synergistic Association with Child Diet at 6 Years

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    Objective: Children breast-fed during infancy consume more fruits and vegetables than formula-fed children. This pattern is likely due, in part, to infant learning from flavours of the mother’s diet transmitted through breast milk, but more research is needed to understand associations between early flavour exposures and later dietary patterns. We examined whether breast-feeding and maternal fruit and vegetable consumption during nursing were synergistically associated with higher child fruit and vegetable consumption. Design: Prospective cohort study of breast-feeding duration, maternal diet postpartum and child diet. Complete breast-feeding and maternal diet data were available for 1396 mother–child dyads; multiple imputation was used for missing data in other variables. In separate multivariable logistic regression models, we estimated the adjusted odds of high child fruit or vegetable consumption at 12 months or 6 years as a function of breast-feeding duration, maternal fruit or vegetable consumption during nursing, and their interaction. Setting: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II and Year 6 Follow-Up. Participants: Mother–child dyads followed from birth to 6 years during 2005–2012 in the USA. Results: Longer breast-feeding duration was associated with high child fruit and vegetable consumption at 12 months. At 6 years, the interaction between breast-feeding duration and maternal vegetable consumption was associated with high child vegetable consumption. Conclusions: Higher maternal vegetable consumption and longer breast-feeding duration were synergistically associated with high child vegetable consumption at 6 years, independent of sociodemographic characteristics and fruit and vegetable availability. Exposures to vegetable flavours through breast milk may promote later child vegetable consumption

    Bug-in-Ear Technology as a Clinical Teaching Tool for Au.D. Education: A Pilot Study

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    Traditional forms of clinical pedagogy include post-observation feedback and side-by-side coaching. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate a newer strategy, bug-in-ear technology (BIET), in which clinical supervisors provide live feedback through a discrete earpiece. BIET has the potential to overcome limitations associated with traditional clinical pedagogy. This pilot study compared side-by-side coaching to BIET coaching, using standardized patients in an on-campus audiology clinic. In this study, first-year Au.D. students conducted a case history assessment for two standardized patients. Likert-response ratings and qualitative data from open-set questions indicated BIET coaching was well received by supervisors because it provided a discrete way to deliver quick, live feedback to students. Although supervisor ratings of BIET were slightly more positive than student ratings, comments from both students and supervisors indicated they could see BIET coaching working well in the future, with modifications. Likert-response items indicated student preference for BIET was associated with feelings of confidence and desire to use BIET. More research is needed to examine ways in which BIET coaching can be operationalized to support audiology clinical education

    Gestión tecnológica y optimización de la producción según los trabajadores de las plantas procesadoras de quinua en el Perú, 2017

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    El estudio denominado “Gestión Tecnológica y optimización de la producción según los trabajadores de las plantas procesadoras de quinua en el Perú, 2017”, presento el objetivo de: Determinar la relación entre la gestión tecnológica y la optimización de la producción en las plantas procesadoras de quinua en el Perú, 2017. El estudio se realizó bajo el enfoque cuantitativo del paradigma positivismo en el tipo de investigación básica de diseño no experimental, transversal correlacional. La muestra estuvo conformada por 114 trabajadores de las plantas procesadoras de quinua ubicados en la zona Este de Lima Metropolitana. La técnica que se utilizó es la encuesta y los instrumentos de recolección de datos fueron dos escalas de percepción aplicados a los trabajadores, dichos instrumentos fueron construidos mediante el procedimiento de operacionalización de cada variable, para la validez se recurrió al método de criterio de jueces y se determinó su confiabilidad con datos de una prueba piloto mediante el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach que salió muy alta en ambas variables con la cual su aplicabilidad fue coherente. Luego del procesamiento de datos, su análisis e interpretación se arribó a la conclusión que existe relación directa y significativa entre la gestión tecnológica y la optimización de la producción. Lo que se demuestra con el estadístico de Spearman (sig. bilateral = .000 < 0.01; Rho = .825**)

    More Rapid Increase in BMI from Age 5–15 is Associated with Elevated Weight Status at Age 24 among Non-Hispanic White Females

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    Background: A rapidly increasing BMI trajectory throughout childhood is associated with negative health outcomes in adulthood such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether BMI trajectories from age 5–15 predicted changes in weight and BMI from adolescence to adulthood, and dieting-related behaviors in young adulthood. Methods: Non-Hispanic White female participants from Early Dieting in Girls (n=182), a longitudinal cohort study, were followed from age 5 to 15 and completed a follow-up survey at age 24. Participants were classified by age 5–15 BMI trajectory groups: UPC, accelerated weight gain from age 5–9; DDPC, accelerated weight gain from 5 to 9 followed by a decrease; 60PT, weight tracked along 60th percentile; 50PT, weight tracked along 50th percentile. Data at age 24 included self-reported weight, height, dietary restraint, disinhibition, and dieting. Results: Majority of participants (80.8%) completed the follow-up survey; of these participants, 60% in UPC group had obesity at age 24, compared to\u3c10% in the other 3 groups. Participants in the UPC group had greater increases in BMI since age 15, compared to the 50PT group, and trend-level greater weight increases than those in the DDPC and 60PT groups. Dietary restraint, but not disinhibition, differed across the groups. Conclusions: Children with accelerated weight gain continued to have the greatest weight gain from adolescence to adulthood and the highest prevalence of obesity in adulthood

    Impact of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis on caregivers: caregiver-reported outcomes from the multinational PICTURE study.

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    From Europe PMC via Jisc Publications RouterHistory: ppub 2022-02-01, epub 2022-02-02Publication status: PublishedFunder: Albireo Pharma, Inc.BackgroundProgressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a spectrum of rare genetic diseases characterized by inadequate bile secretion that requires substantial ongoing care, though little research is published in this area. We report health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work productivity outcomes from the retrospective, cross-sectional PICTURE study investigating the burden of PFIC on caregivers. Information from caregivers of patients with PFIC 1 or 2 in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States from September 2020 to March 2021 was included.ResultsThe PICTURE study sample comprised HRQoL responses from 22 PFIC caregivers. Patients were on average 8.2 years old; most caregivers were 30-49 years old (68%) and mothers (77%). Median CarerQoL-7D score was 67.7/100; mean CarerQoL-VAS score for general happiness was 5.7/10 (SD 2.1). Most caregivers reported fulfilment in their caregiving responsibilities, but problems with mental and physical health, finances, and relationships. When stratified by patient's PFIC type, mean CarerQoL-7D and CarerQoL-VAS scores suggested worse HRQoL outcomes with PFIC2 versus PFIC1 (59.4 vs. 71.2, and 5.3 vs. 6.5, respectively). Additionally, more caregivers reported impact on sleep in the PFIC2 versus PFIC1 subgroup (93% vs. 75%). When stratified by history of PFIC-related surgeries, mean CarerQoL-7D and VAS scores were higher among those whose children had no specified surgeries (67.7 vs. 59.0/100 and 6.2 vs. 5.2/10, respectively). Nearly all caregivers reported an impact of caregiving responsibilities on sleeping (86%) and on personal relationships (82%). No caregivers reported having formal care support. Most caregivers were employed (73%); a third reported mean productivity loss of 12.9 days (SD 19.3) over the last 3 months, and a mean of 2.8 (SD 9.5) missed years of employment during their career. A higher number of workdays were missed by PFIC 2 caregivers compared to PFIC1 over last 3 months (16 days vs. 3 days).ConclusionsThe PICTURE study has demonstrated the prevalent, comprehensive, and meaningful burden that caring for an individual with PFIC has on caregivers. Despite fulfilment from caregiving, the breadth and depth of these responsibilities reduced caregiver reported HRQoL including mental and physical health, productivity, career prospects, sleep, relationships and finances

    Obstructive sleep apnea and Fuhrman grade in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated surgically

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    PURPOSE: To assess the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Fuhrman grade in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). As secondary endpoints, we studied its association with tumor size, metastasis-free survival (MFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). METHODS: We reviewed the databases of two tertiary care centers, identifying 2579 patients who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy for ccRCC between 1991 and 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to compare pathologic variables between patients with and without OSA. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association of OSA with Fuhrman grade and tumor size. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine OSA association with MFS and CSS. A pathway analysis was performed on a cohort with available gene expression data. RESULTS: In total, 172 patients (7 %) had self-reported OSA at diagnosis. More patients with OSA had high Fuhrman grade compared to those without OSA [51 vs. 38 %; 13 % risk difference; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 5-20 %; p = 0.003]. On multivariable analysis, the association remained significant (OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.00-1.99; p = 0.048). OSA was not associated with tumor size (p > 0.5), MFS (p = 0.5) or CSS (p = 0.4). A trend toward vascular endothelial growth factor pathway enrichment was seen in OSA patients (p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: OSA is associated with high Fuhrman grade in patients undergoing surgery for ccRCC. Pending validation of this novel finding in further prospective studies, it could help shape future research to better understand etiological mechanisms associated

    Prediction of peptide and protein propensity for amyloid formation

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    Understanding which peptides and proteins have the potential to undergo amyloid formation and what driving forces are responsible for amyloid-like fiber formation and stabilization remains limited. This is mainly because proteins that can undergo structural changes, which lead to amyloid formation, are quite diverse and share no obvious sequence or structural homology, despite the structural similarity found in the fibrils. To address these issues, a novel approach based on recursive feature selection and feed-forward neural networks was undertaken to identify key features highly correlated with the self-assembly problem. This approach allowed the identification of seven physicochemical and biochemical properties of the amino acids highly associated with the self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid-like fibrils (normalized frequency of β-sheet, normalized frequency of β-sheet from LG, weights for β-sheet at the window position of 1, isoelectric point, atom-based hydrophobic moment, helix termination parameter at position j+1 and ΔGº values for peptides extrapolated in 0 M urea). Moreover, these features enabled the development of a new predictor (available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/appnn/index.html) capable of accurately and reliably predicting the amyloidogenic propensity from the polypeptide sequence alone with a prediction accuracy of 84.9 % against an external validation dataset of sequences with experimental in vitro, evidence of amyloid formation

    Contraceptive methods and use by women aged 35 and over: A qualitative study of perspectives

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>More than 30% of the pregnancies in women aged 35 and over are unintended. This paper compares perceptions about contraceptive methods and use among women with and without an unintended pregnancy after turning age 35.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women. They were all 35 to 49 years old, regularly menstruating, sexually active, not sterilized, not desiring a pregnancy in the near future, and at least 3 months postpartum. We purposely sampled for women who had had at least one unintended pregnancy after age 35 (n = 9) and women who did not (n = 8). We assessed partnership, views of pregnancy and motherhood, desired lifestyle, perceived advantages and disadvantages of using and obtaining currently available well-known reversible contraceptives in the U.S. ''We also assessed contraceptive methods used at any time during their reproductive years, including current method use and, if appropriate, circumstances surrounding an unintended pregnancy after age 35.'' Each interview was taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Analysis focused on partnership, views of pregnancy, motherhood, desired lifestyle and perceived advantages and disadvantages of various reversible contraceptive methods.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The women without an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1) use contraceptive methods that helped treat a medical condition, (2) consider pregnancy as dangerous, or (3) express concerns about the responsibilities of motherhood. The women who experienced an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1) report unstable partnerships, (2) perceive themselves at lower risk of pregnancy, or (3) report past experiences with unwanted contraceptive side effects. There was a greater likelihood a woman would choose a contraceptive method if it was perceived as easy to use, accessible, affordable and had minimal side effects.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Women's perspective on contraceptive use after age 35 varies. Public health messages and health providers' care can help women in this age group by reviewing their fertility risks, as well as all contraceptive methods and their associated side effects. The impact of such interventions on unintended pregnancy rates in this age group should be tested in other areas of evidence-based medicine.</p

    Impact of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis on caregivers: caregiver-reported outcomes from the multinational PICTURE study

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    From Springer Nature via Jisc Publications RouterHistory: received 2021-11-02, accepted 2022-01-16, registration 2022-01-18, pub-electronic 2022-02-02, online 2022-02-02, collection 2022-12Publication status: PublishedFunder: Albireo Pharma, Inc.Abstract: Background: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a spectrum of rare genetic diseases characterized by inadequate bile secretion that requires substantial ongoing care, though little research is published in this area. We report health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work productivity outcomes from the retrospective, cross-sectional PICTURE study investigating the burden of PFIC on caregivers. Information from caregivers of patients with PFIC 1 or 2 in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States from September 2020 to March 2021 was included. Results: The PICTURE study sample comprised HRQoL responses from 22 PFIC caregivers. Patients were on average 8.2 years old; most caregivers were 30–49 years old (68%) and mothers (77%). Median CarerQoL-7D score was 67.7/100; mean CarerQoL-VAS score for general happiness was 5.7/10 (SD 2.1). Most caregivers reported fulfilment in their caregiving responsibilities, but problems with mental and physical health, finances, and relationships. When stratified by patient’s PFIC type, mean CarerQoL-7D and CarerQoL-VAS scores suggested worse HRQoL outcomes with PFIC2 versus PFIC1 (59.4 vs. 71.2, and 5.3 vs. 6.5, respectively). Additionally, more caregivers reported impact on sleep in the PFIC2 versus PFIC1 subgroup (93% vs. 75%). When stratified by history of PFIC-related surgeries, mean CarerQoL-7D and VAS scores were higher among those whose children had no specified surgeries (67.7 vs. 59.0/100 and 6.2 vs. 5.2/10, respectively). Nearly all caregivers reported an impact of caregiving responsibilities on sleeping (86%) and on personal relationships (82%). No caregivers reported having formal care support. Most caregivers were employed (73%); a third reported mean productivity loss of 12.9 days (SD 19.3) over the last 3 months, and a mean of 2.8 (SD 9.5) missed years of employment during their career. A higher number of workdays were missed by PFIC 2 caregivers compared to PFIC1 over last 3 months (16 days vs. 3 days). Conclusions: The PICTURE study has demonstrated the prevalent, comprehensive, and meaningful burden that caring for an individual with PFIC has on caregivers. Despite fulfilment from caregiving, the breadth and depth of these responsibilities reduced caregiver reported HRQoL including mental and physical health, productivity, career prospects, sleep, relationships and finances
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