10,640 research outputs found

### The Euro changeover and price adjustments in Italy

By estimating a staggered price model over the period 1980q1-2010q2, this paper documents that, after the euro changeover, Italian retailers have increased the number of price adjustments, which has translated into a higher inflation rate, with a detrimental effect on the competitiveness of the Italian economy

### Orbit decidability and the conjugacy problem for some extensions of groups

Given a short exact sequence of groups with certain conditions, $1\to F\to
G\to H\to 1$, we prove that $G$ has solvable conjugacy problem if and only if
the corresponding action subgroup $A\leqslant Aut(F)$ is orbit decidable. From
this, we deduce that the conjugacy problem is solvable, among others, for all
groups of the form $\mathbb{Z}^2\rtimes F_m$, $F_2\rtimes F_m$, $F_n \rtimes
\mathbb{Z}$, and $\mathbb{Z}^n \rtimes_A F_m$ with virtually solvable action
group $A\leqslant GL_n(\mathbb{Z})$. Also, we give an easy way of constructing
groups of the form $\mathbb{Z}^4\rtimes F_n$ and $F_3\rtimes F_n$ with
unsolvable conjugacy problem. On the way, we solve the twisted conjugacy
problem for virtually surface and virtually polycyclic groups, and give an
example of a group with solvable conjugacy problem but unsolvable twisted
conjugacy problem. As an application, an alternative solution to the conjugacy
problem in $Aut(F_2)$ is given

### SR-FTiR microscopy and FTIR imaging in the earth sciences

During the last decades, several books have been devoted to the application
of spectroscopic methods in mineralogy. Several short courses and meetings have
addressed particular aspects of spectroscopy, such as the analysis of hydrous
components in minerals and Earth materials. In these books, complete treatment
of the infrared theory and practical aspects of instrumentation and methods,
along with an exhaustive list of references, can be found. The present chapter
is intended to cover those aspects of infrared spectroscopy that have been
developed in the past decade and are not included in earlier reviews such as
Volume 18 of Reviews in Mineralogy. These new topics involve primarily: (1) the
use of synchrotron radiation (SR), which, although not a routine method, is now
rather extensively applied in infrared studies, in particular those requiring
ultimate spatial and time resolution and the analysis of extremely small
samples (a few tens of micrometers); (2) the development of imaging techniques
also for foreseen time resolved studies of geo-mineralogical processes and
environmental studies.Comment: 36 pages, 24 figures - Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry - Vol. 78
(2013) in pres

### Dust formation around AGB and SAGB stars: a trend with metallicity?

We calculate the dust formed around AGB and SAGB stars of metallicity Z=0.008
by following the evolution of models with masses in the range 1M<M<8M
throughthe thermal pulses phase, and assuming that dust forms via condensation
of molecules within a wind expanding isotropically from the stellar surface. We
find that, because of the strong Hot Bottom Burning (HBB) experienced, high
mass models produce silicates, whereas lower mass objects are predicted to be
surrounded by carbonaceous grains; the transition between the two regimes
occurs at a threshold mass of 3.5M. These fndings are consistent with the
results presented in a previous investigation, for Z=0.001. However, in the
present higher metallicity case, the production of silicates in the more
massive stars continues for the whole AGB phase, because the HBB experienced is
softer at Z=0.008 than at Z=0.001, thus the oxygen in the envelope, essential
for the formation of water molecules, is never consumed completely. The total
amount of dust formed for a given mass experiencing HBB increases with
metallicity, because of the higher abundance of silicon, and the softer HBB,
both factors favouring a higher rate of silicates production. This behaviour is
not found in low mass stars,because the carbon enrichment of the stellar
surface layers, due to repeated Third Drege Up episodes, is almost independent
of the metallicity. Regarding cosmic dust enrichment by intermediate mass
stars, we find that the cosmic yield at Z=0.008 is a factor 5 larger than at
Z=0.001. In the lower metallicity case carbon dust dominates after about 300
Myr, but at Z=0.008 the dust mass is dominated by silicates at all times,with a
prompt enrichment occurring after about 40 Myr, associated with the evolution
of stars with masses M =7.5 -8M.Comment: 14 pages, 10 figures, 2 Tables, accepted for publication in MNRA

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