4,941 research outputs found

    Evolutionary development and co-phylogeny of primate-associated bifidobacteria

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    In recent years, bifidobacterial populations in the gut of various monkey species have been assessed in several ecological surveys, unveiling a diverse, yet unexplored ecosystem harbouring novel species. In the current study, we investigated the species distribution of bifidobacteria present in 23 different species of primates, including human samples, by means of 16S rRNA microbial profiling and internal transcribed spacer bifidobacterial profiling. Based on the observed bifidobacterial-host co-phylogeny, we found a statistically significant correlation between the Hominidae family and particular bifidobacterial species isolated from humans, indicating phylosymbiosis between these lineages. Furthermore, phylogenetic and glycobiome analyses, based on 40 bifidobacterial species isolated from primates, revealed that members of the Bifidobacterium tissieri phylogenetic group, which are typical gut inhabitants of members of the Cebidae family, descend from an ancient ancestor with respect to other bifidobacterial taxa isolated from primates

    Bacterial Inclusion Bodies Contain Amyloid-Like Structure

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    Protein aggregation is a process in which identical proteins self-associate into imperfectly ordered macroscopic entities. Such aggregates are generally classified as amorphous, lacking any long-range order, or highly ordered fibrils. Protein fibrils can be composed of native globular molecules, such as the hemoglobin molecules in sickle-cell fibrils, or can be reorganized β-sheet–rich aggregates, termed amyloid-like fibrils. Amyloid fibrils are associated with several pathological conditions in humans, including Alzheimer disease and diabetes type II. We studied the structure of bacterial inclusion bodies, which have been believed to belong to the amorphous class of aggregates. We demonstrate that all three in vivo-derived inclusion bodies studied are amyloid-like and comprised of amino-acid sequence-specific cross-β structure. These findings suggest that inclusion bodies are structured, that amyloid formation is an omnipresent process both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and that amino acid sequences evolve to avoid the amyloid conformation

    GIARPS: commissioning and first scientific results

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    GIARPS (GIAno \& haRPS) is a project devoted to have on the same focal station of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) both high resolution spectrographs, HARPS-N (VIS) and GIANO-B (NIR), working simultaneously. This could be considered the first and unique worldwide instrument providing cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy at a resolution of 50,000 in the NIR range and 115,000 in the VIS and over in a wide spectral range (0.3832.45 μ0.383 - 2.45\ \mum) in a single exposure. The science case is very broad, given the versatility of such an instrument and its large wavelength range. A number of outstanding science cases encompassing mainly extra-solar planet science starting from rocky planets search and hot Jupiters to atmosphere characterization can be considered. Furthermore both instruments can measure high precision radial velocities by means the simultaneous thorium technique (HARPS-N) and absorbing cell technique (GIANO-B) in a single exposure. Other science cases are also possible. GIARPS, as a brand new observing mode of the TNG started after the moving of GIANO-A (fiber fed spectrograph) from Nasmyth-A to Nasmyth-B where it was re-born as GIANO-B (no more fiber feed spectrograph). The official Commissioning finished on March 2017 and then it was offered to the community. Despite the work is not finished yet. In this paper we describe the preliminary scientific results obtained with GIANO-B and GIARPS observing mode with data taken during commissioning and first open time observations.Comment: 10 pages, 11 figures, Telescopes and Astronomical instrumentation, SPIE Conf. 201

    Precision measurement of the neutrino velocity with the ICARUS detector in the CNGS beam

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    During May 2012, the CERN-CNGS neutrino beam has been operated for two weeks for a total of 1.8 10^17 pot in bunched mode, with a 3 ns narrow width proton beam bunches, separated by 100 ns. This tightly bunched beam structure allows a very accurate time of flight measurement of neutrinos from CERN to LNGS on an event-by-event basis. Both the ICARUS-T600 PMT-DAQ and the CERN-LNGS timing synchronization have been substantially improved for this campaign, taking ad-vantage of additional independent GPS receivers, both at CERN and LNGS as well as of the deployment of the "White Rabbit" protocol both at CERN and LNGS. The ICARUS-T600 detector has collected 25 beam-associated events; the corresponding time of flight has been accurately evaluated, using all different time synchronization paths. The measured neutrino time of flight is compatible with the arrival of all events with speed equivalent to the one of light: the difference between the expected value based on the speed of light and the measured value is tof_c - tof_nu = (0.10 \pm 0.67stat. \pm 2.39syst.) ns. This result is in agreement with the value previously reported by the ICARUS collaboration, tof_c - tof_nu = (0.3 \pm 4.9stat. \pm 9.0syst.) ns, but with improved statistical and systematic errors.Comment: 21 pages, 13 figures, 1 tabl

    Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the s-only isotope 204Pb from 1 eV to 440 keV

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    The neutron capture cross section of 204Pb has been measured at the CERN n_TOF installation with high resolution in the energy range from 1 eV to 440 keV. An R-matrix analysis of the resolved resonance region, between 1 eV and 100 keV, was carried out using the SAMMY code. In the interval between 100 keV and 440 keV we report the average capture cross section. The background in the entire neutron energy range could be reliably determined from the measurement of a 208Pb sample. Other systematic effects in this measurement could be investigated and precisely corrected by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain a Maxwellian average capture cross section for 204Pb at kT=30 keV of 79(3) mb, in agreement with previous experiments. However our cross section at kT=5 keV is about 35% larger than the values reported so far. The implications of the new cross section for the s-process abundance contributions in the Pb/Bi region are discussed.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, article submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Ni-62(n,gamma) and Ni-63(n,gamma) cross sections measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The cross section of the Ni-62(n,gamma) reaction was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. Capture kernels of 42 resonances were analyzed up to 200 keV neutron energy and Maxwellian averaged cross sections (MACS) from kT = 5-100 keV were calculated. With a total uncertainty of 4.5%, the stellar cross section is in excellent agreement with the the KADoNiS compilation at kT = 30 keV, while being systematically lower up to a factor of 1.6 at higher stellar temperatures. The cross section of the Ni-63(n,gamma) reaction was measured for the first time at n_TOF. We determined unresolved cross sections from 10 to 270 keV with a systematic uncertainty of 17%. These results provide fundamental constraints on s-process production of heavier species, especially the production of Cu in massive stars, which serve as the dominant source of Cu in the solar system.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    New measurement of neutron capture resonances of 209Bi

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    The neutron capture cross section of Bi209 has been measured at the CERN n TOF facility by employing the pulse-height-weighting technique. Improvements over previous measurements are mainly because of an optimized detection system, which led to a practically negligible neutron sensitivity. Additional experimental sources of systematic error, such as the electronic threshold in the detectors, summing of gamma-rays, internal electron conversion, and the isomeric state in bismuth, have been taken into account. Gamma-ray absorption effects inside the sample have been corrected by employing a nonpolynomial weighting function. Because Bi209 is the last stable isotope in the reaction path of the stellar s-process, the Maxwellian averaged capture cross section is important for the recycling of the reaction flow by alpha-decays. In the relevant stellar range of thermal energies between kT=5 and 8 keV our new capture rate is about 16% higher than the presently accepted value used for nucleosynthesis calculations. At this low temperature an important part of the heavy Pb-Bi isotopes are supposed to be synthesized by the s-process in the He shells of low mass, thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars. With the improved set of cross sections we obtain an s-process fraction of 19(3)% of the solar bismuth abundance, resulting in an r-process residual of 81(3)%. The present (n,gamma) cross-section measurement is also of relevance for the design of accelerator driven systems based on a liquid metal Pb/Bi spallation target.Comment: 10 pages, 5figures, recently published in Phys. Rev.

    Measurement of the (90,91,92,93,94,96)Zr(n,gamma) and (139)La(n,gamma) cross sections at n_TOF

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    Open AccessNeutron capture cross sections of Zr and La isotopes have important implications in the field of nuclear astrophysics as well as in the nuclear technology. In particular the Zr isotopes play a key role for the determination of the neutron density in the He burning zone of the Red Giant star, while the (139)La is important to monitor the s-process abundances from Ba up to Ph. Zr is also largely used as structural materials of traditional and advanced nuclear reactors. The nuclear resonance parameters and the cross section of (90,91,92,93,94,96)Zr and (139)La have been measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN. Based on these data the capture resonance strength and the Maxwellian-averaged cross section were calculated
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