362 research outputs found

    Tracker alignment in CMS::interplay with pixel local reconstruction

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    The CMS silicon tracking system measures the trajectories of charged particles with a hit resolution of the order of microns in the pixel detector and tens of microns in the strip detector. One of the most important inputs for track reconstruction is the precision with which the tracker geometry is known. Therefore the position, orientation, and curvature of each tracker sensor must be precisely determined. Changes in the operating conditions can cause movements in the different substructures and also in the sensors. For maintaining the targeted precision, frequent corrections are needed, and the procedure to determine these corrections is commonly referred to as tracker alignment. Due to accumulated radiation during data taking, the response of the sensors changes over time. This affects the local reconstruction of pixel hits and consequently the result of the alignment procedure. In this contribution, the alignment procedure in CMS is introduced, as well as the dedicated calibration for the pixel local reconstruction. The effect of the change in the local reconstruction due to aging of the sensors on the alignment procedure is discussed.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, conference report for Pixel2022, to be published in PoS(Pixel2022

    Characterisation of a Silicon Photomultiplier of 64 channels

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    Treballs Finals de Grau de FĂ­sica, Facultat de FĂ­sica, Universitat de Barcelona, Curs: 2018, Tutor: Ricardo Graciani DiazThis work presents the study of a 64 channel silicon photomultiplier (3.2 x 3.2 mm2 each channel) built by Hammamatsu. From the experimental data, the values of the gain at four different voltages (68V, 68.5V, 69V, 69.5V) are measured for each channel and, the breakdown voltage and the gain per voltage, for each channel, have been determined. Also measurements at 70V have been preformed but rejected because of the amount of noise

    La figura paterna en los procedimientos contenciosos de nulidad, separaciĂłn y divorcio

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    El presente trabajo muestra la evolución del hombre en la familia, el paso de una familia tradicional a las nuevas modalidades de familia y una notable evolución del Código Civil, norma reguladora de esta materia. Todo ello, sin olvidarnos del interés superior del menor; siendo éste el derecho que atañe a los menores en cuanto a que su interés sea valorado y considerado con prioridad en todas aquellas decisiones y acciones que le afecten2019-2

    Stern-Gerlach Experiment

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    This work is about modelling an experiment composed by multiple Stern- Gerlach devices using Membrane Computing. We will study the behaviour of a set of independent particles passing through three linked Stern-Gerlach devices and discarting the spin down particles after passing through the first one, taking profit of the Membrane Computing’s ability of running parallel processing. Using a cell-like model to describe the system and testing it using the P-lingua framework we have obtained the theorically predicted results when the number of initial multisets is high enough

    Post-intervention Status in Patients With Refractory Myasthenia Gravis Treated With Eculizumab During REGAIN and Its Open-Label Extension

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether eculizumab helps patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor-positive (AChR+) refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) achieve the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) post-intervention status of minimal manifestations (MM), we assessed patients' status throughout REGAIN (Safety and Efficacy of Eculizumab in AChR+ Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis) and its open-label extension. METHODS: Patients who completed the REGAIN randomized controlled trial and continued into the open-label extension were included in this tertiary endpoint analysis. Patients were assessed for the MGFA post-intervention status of improved, unchanged, worse, MM, and pharmacologic remission at defined time points during REGAIN and through week 130 of the open-label study. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients completed REGAIN and continued into the open-label study (eculizumab/eculizumab: 56; placebo/eculizumab: 61). At week 26 of REGAIN, more eculizumab-treated patients than placebo-treated patients achieved a status of improved (60.7% vs 41.7%) or MM (25.0% vs 13.3%; common OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). After 130 weeks of eculizumab treatment, 88.0% of patients achieved improved status and 57.3% of patients achieved MM status. The safety profile of eculizumab was consistent with its known profile and no new safety signals were detected. CONCLUSION: Eculizumab led to rapid and sustained achievement of MM in patients with AChR+ refractory gMG. These findings support the use of eculizumab in this previously difficult-to-treat patient population. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: REGAIN, NCT01997229; REGAIN open-label extension, NCT02301624. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that, after 26 weeks of eculizumab treatment, 25.0% of adults with AChR+ refractory gMG achieved MM, compared with 13.3% who received placebo

    Minimal Symptom Expression' in Patients With Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody-Positive Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis Treated With Eculizumab

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    The efficacy and tolerability of eculizumab were assessed in REGAIN, a 26-week, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR+) refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG), and its open-label extension

    Beam test performance of a prototype module with Short Strip ASICs for the CMS HL-LHC tracker upgrade

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    The Short Strip ASIC (SSA) is one of the four front-end chips designed for the upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC. Together with the Macro-Pixel ASIC (MPA) it will instrument modules containing a strip and a macro-pixel sensor stacked on top of each other. The SSA provides both full readout of the strip hit information when triggered, and, together with the MPA, correlated clusters called stubs from the two sensors for use by the CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger system. Results from the first prototype module consisting of a sensor and two SSA chips are presented. The prototype module has been characterized at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility using a 120 GeV proton beam

    Temperature studies of Pixel-Strip Detector Modules for the Upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker using a Burn-In Setup

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    The high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the typical instantaneous luminosity by a factor of about four. In order to cope with the new conditions, such as higher levels of radiation damage, larger pileup, and higher data load, the CMS detector will require substantial upgrades. As part of this upgrade program, the entire silicon tracking detector will be replaced. The basic elements of the new CMS Outer Tracker (OT) are pTp_T modules containing silicon sensors, which implement a mechanism to contribute to the Level-1 trigger system. The modules have to operate at low temperatures (-35\textdegree C) to mitigate the increase in the leakage current resulting from exposure to high radiation levels. In addition to thorough quality control, a burn-in procedure is needed to ensure the functionality of each OT module at the operating temperature, both during long-term operation and after temperature cycles. For this purpose, a burn-in system is being commissioned at DESY. This setup will perform thermal cycles from room temperature down to the operation temperature and conduct essential tests to ensure good performance of the modules. For the validation of this setup, the thermal contact for a Pixel-Strip (PS) module under power as well as there internal temperature distribution have been studied. In this contribution, the burn-in setup as well as the temperature studies of a prototype of a PS module will be presented

    Tracker Alignment in CMS: interplay with pixel local reconstruction

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    The CMS silicon tracking system measures the trajectory of charged particles with a hit resolution of the order of microns in the pixel detector and tens of microns in the strip detectors. One of the most important inputs for track reconstruction is the precision with which the tracker geometry is known. Therefore the position, orientation, and curvature of each tracker sensor must be precisely determined. Changes in the operating conditions can cause movements in the different substructures and also in the sensors. For maintaining the targeted precision, frequent corrections are needed, and the procedure to determine these corrections is commonly referred to as tracker alignment. Due to accumulated radiation during data taking, the response of sensors changes over time. This affects the pixel local reconstruction and consequently the result of the alignment procedure. In this talk, the alignment procedure in CMS is introduced, as well as the dedicated calibration for the pixel local reconstruction. We discuss the change in the local reconstruction due to the ageing of the sensors on the alignment procedure

    Comissioning of a Burn-In Setup for PS and 2S Detector Modules for the Upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker

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    The high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the typical instantaneous luminosity by a factor of about four. In order to cope with the new conditions, such as higher levels of radiation damage, larger pileup, and higher data load, the CMS detector will require substantial upgrades. As part of this upgrade program, the entire silicon tracking detector will be renewed. The detecting elements of the new CMS Outer Tracker (OT) are silicon detectors, so called pT modules, implementing a mechanism to contribute to the Level-1 trigger system. The modules have to operate at low temperatures (-35° C) to mitigate the increase in the leakage current resulting from exposure to high radiation levels.In addition to thorough quality control, a burn-in procedure is needed to ensure the correct operation of each OT module at operation temperature, both during long term operation and after temperature cycles.For this purpose, a burn-in system is being commissioned at DESY. This setup will perform thermal cycles from room temperature down to the operation temperature and conduct essential tests to ensure good performance of the modules. For the validation of this setup, the thermal contact and the thermal homogeneity throughout individual PS modules have been studied during operation.In this contribution, the burn-in setup as well as the temperature studies of prototype PS modules will be presented
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