223 research outputs found

    Impact of a fermented soy beverage supplemented with acerola by-product on the gut microbiota from lean and obese subjects using an in vitro model of the human colon

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    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy-based beverages manufactured with water-soluble soy extract, containing probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium longum BB-46) and/or acerola by-product (ABP) on pooled faecal microbiota obtained from lean and obese donors. Four fermented soy beverages (FSs) (“placebo” (FS-Pla), probiotic (FS-Pro), prebiotic (FS-Pre), and synbiotic (FS-Syn)) were subjected to in vitro digestion, followed by inoculation in the TIM-2 system, a dynamic in vitro model that mimics the conditions of the human colon. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids (SCFA and BCFA) and microbiota composition were determined. Upon colonic fermentation in the presence of the different FSs formulations, acetic and lactic acid production was higher than the control treatment for faecal microbiota from lean individuals (FMLI). Additionally, SCFA production by the FMLI was higher than for the faecal microbiota from obese individuals (FMOI). Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. populations increased during simulated colonic fermentation in the presence of FS-Syn in the FMLI and FMOI. FS formulations also changed the composition of the FMOI, resulting in a profile more similar to the FMLI. The changes in the composition and the increase in SCFA production observed for the FMLI and FMOI during these in vitro fermentations suggest a potential modulation effect of these microbiotas by the consumption of functional FSs. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] Key points: • Soy beverages increased Bifidobacterium abundance in microbiota from obese individuals. • The synbiotic beverage increased Bifidobacterium abundance in microbiota from lean individuals. • The synbiotic beverage changed the microbiota from obese individuals, approaching the lean profiles.</p

    Primary versus early secondary referral to a specialized neurotrauma center in patients with moderate/severe traumatic brain injury: a CENTER TBI study

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    Abstract Background Prehospital care for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies with some emergency medical systems recommending direct transport of patients with moderate to severe TBI to hospitals with specialist neurotrauma care (SNCs). The aim of this study is to assess variation in levels of early secondary referral within European SNCs and to compare the outcomes of directly admitted and secondarily transferred patients. Methods Patients with moderate and severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale &lt; 13) from the prospective European CENTER-TBI study were included in this study. All participating hospitals were specialist neuroscience centers. First, adjusted between-country differences were analysed using random effects logistic regression where early secondary referral was the dependent variable, and a random intercept for country was included. Second, the adjusted effect of early secondary referral on survival to hospital discharge and functional outcome [6 months Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE)] was estimated using logistic and ordinal mixed effects models, respectively. Results A total of 1347 moderate/severe TBI patients from 53 SNCs in 18 European countries were included. Of these 1347 patients, 195 (14.5%) were admitted after early secondary referral. Secondarily referred moderate/severe TBI patients presented more often with a CT abnormality: mass lesion (52% vs. 34%), midline shift (54% vs. 36%) and acute subdural hematoma (77% vs. 65%). After adjusting for case-mix, there was a large European variation in early secondary referral, with a median OR of 1.69 between countries. Early secondary referral was not associated with functional outcome (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.78–1.69), nor with survival at discharge (1.05, 0.58–1.90). Conclusions Across Europe, substantial practice variation exists in the proportion of secondarily referred TBI patients at SNCs that is not explained by case mix. Within SNCs early secondary referral does not seem to impact functional outcome and survival after stabilisation in a non-specialised hospital. Future research should identify which patients with TBI truly benefit from direct transportation

    Primary versus early secondary referral to a specialized neurotrauma center in patients with moderate/severe traumatic brain injury: a CENTER TBI study

    No full text
    Background Prehospital care for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies with some emergency medical systems recommending direct transport of patients with moderate to severe TBI to hospitals with specialist neurotrauma care (SNCs). The aim of this study is to assess variation in levels of early secondary referral within European SNCs and to compare the outcomes of directly admitted and secondarily transferred patients. Methods Patients with moderate and severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale < 13) from the prospective European CENTER-TBI study were included in this study. All participating hospitals were specialist neuroscience centers. First, adjusted between-country differences were analysed using random effects logistic regression where early secondary referral was the dependent variable, and a random intercept for country was included. Second, the adjusted effect of early secondary referral on survival to hospital discharge and functional outcome [6 months Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE)] was estimated using logistic and ordinal mixed effects models, respectively. Results A total of 1347 moderate/severe TBI patients from 53 SNCs in 18 European countries were included. Of these 1347 patients, 195 (14.5%) were admitted after early secondary referral. Secondarily referred moderate/severe TBI patients presented more often with a CT abnormality: mass lesion (52% vs. 34%), midline shift (54% vs. 36%) and acute subdural hematoma (77% vs. 65%). After adjusting for case-mix, there was a large European variation in early secondary referral, with a median OR of 1.69 between countries. Early secondary referral was not associated with functional outcome (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.78–1.69), nor with survival at discharge (1.05, 0.58–1.90). Conclusions Across Europe, substantial practice variation exists in the proportion of secondarily referred TBI patients at SNCs that is not explained by case mix. Within SNCs early secondary referral does not seem to impact functional outcome and survival after stabilisation in a non-specialised hospital. Future research should identify which patients with TBI truly benefit from direct transportation

    Inflammation status modulates the effect of host genetic variation on intestinal gene expression in inflammatory bowel disease

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    More than 240 genetic risk loci have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but little is known about how they contribute to disease development in involved tissue. Here, we hypothesized that host genetic variation affects gene expression in an inflammation-dependent way, and investigated 299 snap-frozen intestinal biopsies from inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa from 171 IBD patients. RNA-sequencing was performed, and genotypes were determined using whole exome sequencing and genome wide genotyping. In total, 28,746 genes and 6,894,979 SNPs were included. Linear mixed models identified 8,881 independent intestinal cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) (FDR <0.05) and interaction analysis revealed 190 inflammation-dependent intestinal cis-eQTLs (FDR <0.05), including known IBD-risk genes and genes encoding immune-cell receptors and antibodies. The inflammation-dependent cis-eQTL SNPs (eSNPs) mainly interact with prevalence of immune cell types. Inflammation-dependent intestinal cis-eQTLs reveal genetic susceptibility under inflammatory conditions that can help identify the cell types involved in and the pathways underlying inflammation, knowledge that may guide future drug development and profile patients for precision medicine in IBD. Inflammatory bowel diseases are heterogeneous, and little is known about how underlying genetic variation can affect their development. Here, the authors report that intestinal inflammation modulates the effect of host genetics on the gut mucosal expression of 190 genes in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases.Peer reviewe

    UvA-DARE (Digital Academic Repository) Removal of bone in CT angiography of the cervical arteries by piecewise matched mask bone elimination

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    General rights It is not permitted to download or to forward/distribute the text or part of it without the consent of the author(s) and/or copyright holder(s), other than for strictly personal, individual use, unless the work is under an open content license (like Creative Commons). Disclaimer/Complaints regulations If you believe that digital publication of certain material infringes any of your rights or (privacy) interests, please let the Library know, stating your reasons. In case of a legitimate complaint, the Library will make the material inaccessible and/or remove it from the website. Please Ask the Library: https://uba.uva.nl/en/contact, or a letter to: Library of the University of Amsterdam, Secretariat, Singel 425, 1012 WP Amsterdam, The Netherlands. You will be contacted as soon as possible. In maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of CT angiography (CTA) scans, the arteries are often obscured by bone. A bone removal method is presented that uses an additional, nonenhanced scan to create a mask of the bone by thresholding and dilation. After registration of the CTA scan and the additional scan, the bone in the CTA scan is masked. As the cervical area contains bones that can move with respect to each other, these bones are separated first using a watershed algorithm, and then registered individually. A phantom study was performed to evaluate and quantify the tradeoff between the removal of the bone and the preservation of the arteries contiguous to the bone. The influence of algorithm parameters and scan parameters was studied. The method was clinically evaluated with data sets of 35 patients. Best results were obtained with a threshold of 150 HU and a dilation of 8 in-plane voxels and two out-of-plane voxels. The mean width of the soft tissue layer, which is also masked, was approximately 1 mm. The mAs value of the nonenhanced scan could be reduced from 250 mAs to 65 mAs without a loss of quality. In 32 cases the bones were registered correctly and removed completely. In three cases the bone separation was not completely successful, and consequently the bone was not completely removed. The piecewise matched mask bone elimination method proved to be able to obtain MIP images of the cervical arteries free from overprojecting bone in a fully automatic way and with only a slight increase of radiation dose

    The genetic background of inflammatory bowel disease:From correlation to causality

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    Recent studies have greatly improved our insight into the genetic background of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). New high-throughput technologies and large-scale international collaborations have contributed to the identification of 200 independent genetic risk loci for IBD. However, in most of these loci, it is unclear which gene conveys the risk for IBD. More importantly, it is unclear which variant within or near the gene is causal to the disease. Using targeted GWAS, imputation, resequencing of risk loci, and in silico fine-mapping of densely typed loci, several causal variants have been identified in IBD risk genes, and various pathological pathways have been uncovered. Current research in the field of IBD focuses on the effect of these causal variants on gene expression and protein function. However, more elements than only the genome must be taken into account to disentangle the multifactorial pathology of IBD. The genetic risk loci identified to date only explain a small part of genetic variance in disease risk. Currently, large multi-omics studies are incorporating factors ranging from the gut microbiome to the environment. In this review, we present the progress that has been made in IBD genetic research and stress the importance of studying causality to increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD. We highlight important causal genetic variants in the candidate genes NOD2, ATG16L1, IRGM, IL23R, CARD9, RNF186, and PRDM1. We describe their downstream effects on protein function and their direct effects on the gut immune system. Furthermore, we discuss the future role of genetics in unravelling disease mechanisms in IBD. Copyright (C) 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

    Exploring advanced Euclidean geometry with geogebra

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    Interobserver variability in the detection of cerebral venous thrombosis using CT venography with matched mask bone elimination

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    OBJECTIVES: Computed tomography venography (CTV) has proven to be a reliable imaging method in the evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis with good correlation to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). It is fast and widely accessible, especially in the emergency setting. For better visualization of vascular structures bone is often removed from the images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of a fully automatic bone removal method, matched mask bone elimination (MMBE), and to assess the interobserver variability of the CTV technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with clinical suspicion of cerebral venous thrombosis underwent multislice CTV with MMBE post-processing. Axial source images and maximum intensity projections were retrospectively evaluated by two neuroradiologists for quality of bone removal and for the presence or absence of thrombosis in nine dural sinuses and five deep cerebral veins. A per sinus/vein and a per patient analysis (thrombosis in at least one sinus or vein) was performed and interobserver agreement was assessed. RESULTS: Both observers considered bone removal good in all patients (100%). Interobserver agreement per patient was excellent (kappa=0.83), with a full agreement in 47 of 50 patients (94%). The interobserver agreement per sinus or vein was good (kappa=0.76), with a full agreement in 679 of 700 sinuses or veins (97%). CONCLUSION: CTV aided with MMBE is a robust technique for visualization of the intracranial venous circulation, removing bone effectively. CTV has high interobserver agreement for presence or absence of cerebral venous thrombosi
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