90 research outputs found

    Adherence to the EAU guidelines on Penile Cancer Treatment: European, multicentre, retrospective study

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    16siPurpose: The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines for penile cancer (PC) are exclusively based on retrospective studies and have low grades of recommendation. The aim of this study was to assess the adherence to guidelines by investigating the management strategies for primary tumours and inguinal lymph nodes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 176 PC patients who underwent surgery in eight European centres from 2010 to 2016. The stage and grade were assessed according to the 2009 AJCC–UICC TNM classification system. To assess adherence rates, we compared theoretical and practical adherence to the EAU guidelines. Results: Overall, 176 patients were enrolled. Partial amputation was the most frequent surgical approach (39%). 53.7% of tumours were stage Tis-T1b and the remaining 46.3% were stage T2-T4. Palpable lymph nodes were detected in 30.1% of patients and 45.1% underwent lymphadenectomy (LY). A sizeable group of tumours (43.2%) were N0. For primary treatment, adherence to the EAU guidelines was good (66%). In non-adherent cases, reasons for discrepancy were patient’s choice (17%), surgeon’s preference (36%), and other causes (47%). For LY, the guideline adherence was 70%, with either patient’s or surgeon’s choice or other causes accounting for discrepancy in 28, 20, and 52% of non-adherent cases, respectively. Conclusion: Adherence to the EAU guidelines for PC was quite high across the eight European centres involved in the study. This notwithstanding, strategies for further improvement should be developed and evenly adopted.openopenBada M.; Berardinelli F.; Nyirady P.; Varga J.; Ditonno P.; Battaglia M.; Chiodini P.; De Nunzio C.; Tema G.; Veccia A.; Antonelli A.; Cindolo L.; Simeone C.; Puliatti S.; Micali S.; Schips L.Bada, M.; Berardinelli, F.; Nyirady, P.; Varga, J.; Ditonno, P.; Battaglia, M.; Chiodini, P.; De Nunzio, C.; Tema, G.; Veccia, A.; Antonelli, A.; Cindolo, L.; Simeone, C.; Puliatti, S.; Micali, S.; Schips, L

    Risk of cardiovascular toxicity with combination of immune-checkpoint inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors: a meta-analysis

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    IntroductionCombinations of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and angiogenesis inhibitors (AIs) have been investigated for the treatment of several tumor types. Both ICIs and AIs may lead to cardiovascular adverse events, and their combination may potentially increase the risk for cardiovascular toxicity. In the present meta-analysis, we aim to assess the cardiovascular toxicity of ICIs plus AIs vs. AIs alone. Secondary objectives are non-cardiovascular adverse events and efficacy.MethodsSystematic review was performed according to PRISMA statement. Phase II and III randomized clinical trials were identified by searching the MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library and ASCO Meeting abstracts, from inception to June 2022. The pooled risks for overall response rate (ORR), 1-year progression-free survival (PFS), adverse events (AEs), immune-related AEs, (irAEs), hypertension, and vascular events defined as stroke, myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolisms, were calculated.ResultsIn terms of cardiovascular toxicity, we found higher risk for severe hypertension among patients treated with ICIs plus AIs as compared with those receiving AIs (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01–1.53), but no significant difference was found for any-grade hypertension, and for vascular events. There was also no difference in terms of overall AEs, whereas the incidence of irAEs was increased in the ICIs plus AIs arm, as expected. In terms of efficacy, ICIs plus AIs achieved better ORR (OR 2.25, 95% CI: 1.70–2.97) and PFS (HR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.39–0.63) as compared to AIs alone.ConclusionThe addition of ICIs to AIs significantly increased the risk of high-grade hypertension, but not that of acute vascular events

    Molecular Imaging Diagnosis of Renal Cancer Using 99mTc-Sestamibi SPECT/CT and Girentuximab PET-CT-Current Evidence and Future Development of Novel Techniques

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    : Novel molecular imaging opportunities to preoperatively diagnose renal cell carcinoma is under development and will add more value in limiting the postoperative renal function loss and morbidity. We aimed to comprehensively review the research on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) molecular imaging and to enhance the urologists' and radiologists' knowledge of the current research pattern. We identified an increase in prospective and also retrospective studies that researched to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and between different clear cell renal cell carcinoma subtypes, with small numbers of patients studied, nonetheless with excellent results on specificity, sensitivity and accuracy, especially for 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT that delivers quick results compared to a long acquisition time for girentuximab PET-CT, which instead gives better image quality. Nuclear medicine has helped clinicians in evaluating primary and secondary lesions, and has lately returned with new and exciting insights with novel radiotracers to reinforce its diagnostic potential in renal carcinoma. To further limit the renal function loss and post-surgery morbidity, future research is mandatory to validate the results and to clinically implement the diagnostic techniques in the context of precision medicine

    Artificial intelligence and radiomics in evaluation of kidney lesions: a comprehensive literature review

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    : Radiomics and artificial intelligence (AI) may increase the differentiation of benign from malignant kidney lesions, differentiation of angiomyolipoma (AML) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC), differentiation of oncocytoma from RCC, differentiation of different subtypes of RCC, to predict Fuhrman grade, to predict gene mutation through molecular biomarkers and to predict treatment response in metastatic RCC undergoing immunotherapy. Neural networks analyze imaging data. Statistical, geometrical, textural features derived are giving quantitative data of contour, internal heterogeneity and gray zone features of lesions. A comprehensive literature review was performed, until July 2022. Studies investigating the diagnostic value of radiomics in differentiation of renal lesions, grade prediction, gene alterations, molecular biomarkers and ongoing clinical trials have been analyzed. The application of AI and radiomics could lead to improved sensitivity, specificity, accuracy in detecting and differentiating between renal lesions. Standardization of scanner protocols will improve preoperative differentiation between benign, low-risk cancers and clinically significant renal cancers and holds the premises to enhance the diagnostic ability of imaging tools to characterize renal lesions

    Rates and Predictors of Perioperative Complications in Cytoreductive Nephrectomy: Analysis of the Registry for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Background: Cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) plays an important role in the treatment of a subgroup of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients. Objective: We aimed to evaluate morbidity associated with this procedure and identify potential predictors thereof to aid patient selection for this procedure and potentially improve patient outcomes. Design, setting, and participants: Data from 736 mRCC patients undergoing CN at 14 institutions were retrospectively recorded in the Registry for Metastatic RCC (REMARCC). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for intraoperative, any-grade (AGCs), low-grade, and high-grade (HGCs) postoperative complications (according to the Clavien-Dindo classification) as well as 30-d readmission rates. Results and limitations: Intraoperative complications were observed in 69 patients (10.9%). Thrombectomy (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.75, p = 0.009) and adjacent organ removal (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.38-5.30) were significant predictors of intraoperative complications at multivariable analysis. Two hundred seventeen patients (29.5%) encountered AGCs, while 45 (6.1%) encountered an HGC, of whom 10 (1.4%) died. Twenty-four (3.3%) patients had multiple postoperative complications. Estimated blood loss (EBL; OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.05, p = 0.01) was a significant predictor of AGCs at multivariable analysis. CN case load (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.59, p = 0.009) and EBL (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.20-7.15, p = 0.02) were significant predictors solely for HGCs at multivariable analysis. Forty-one patients (11.5%) were readmitted within 30 d of surgery. No significant predictors were identified. Results were confirmed in a subanalysis focusing solely on patients treated in the contemporary targeted therapy era. Conclusions: Morbidity associated with CN is not negligible. Predictors of high-grade postoperative morbidity are predominantly indicators of complex surgery. EBL is a strong predictor of postoperative complications. CN case load correlates with lower high-grade morbidity and highlights the benefit of centralization of complex surgery. However, risks and benefits should be balanced when considering CN in mRCC patients. Patient summary: We studied patients with metastatic renal cancer to evaluate the outcomes associated with the surgical removal of the primary kidney tumor. We found that this procedure is often complex and adverse events are not uncommon. High intraoperative blood loss and a small number of cases performed at the treating center are associated with a higher rate of postoperative complications

    Radical penectomy, a compromise for life: results from the PECAD study

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    The use of organ sparing strategies to treat penile cancer (PC) is currently supported by evidence that has indicated the safety, efficacy and benefit of this surgery. However, radical penectomy still represents up to 15-20% of primary tumor treatments in PC patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of radical penectomy in PC patients.Background: The use of organ sparing strategies to treat penile cancer (PC) is currently supported by evidence that has indicated the safety, efficacy and benefit of this surgery. However, radical penectomy still represents up to 15-20% of primary tumor treatments in PC patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of radical penectomy in PC patients. Methods: Data from a retrospective multicenter study (PEnile Cancer ADherence study, PECAD Study) on PC patients treated at 13 European and American urological centers (Hospital \u201cSant'Andrea\u201d, Sapienza University, Roma, Italy; \u201cG.D'Annunzio\u201d University, Chieti and ASL 2 Abruzzo, Hospital \u201cS. Pio da Pietrelcina\u201d, Vasto, Italy; Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; Hospital of Budapest, Hungary; Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Urology and Andrology Unit II, University of Bari, Italy; Hospital \u201cSpedali Civili\u201d, Brescia, Italy; Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; Ceara Cancer Institute, Fortaleza, Brazil; Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; Maria Sk\u142odowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center, Warsaw, Poland) between 2010 and 2016 were used. Medical records of patients who specifically underwent radical penectomy were reviewed to identify main clinical and pathological variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 1- and 5-year OS and DFS. Results: Of the entire cohort of 425 patients, 72 patients (16.9%) treated with radical penectomy were extracted and were considered for the analysis. The median age was 64.5 (IQR, 57.5-73.2) years. Of all, 41 (56.9%) patients had pT3/pT4 and 31 (43.1%) pT1/pT2. Moreover, 36 (50.0%) were classified as pN1-3 and 5 (6.9%) M1. Furthermore, 61 (84.7%) had a high grade (G2-G3) with 6 (8.3%) positive surgical margins. The 1- and 5-year OS rates were respectively 73.3% and 59.9%, while the 1- and 5-year DFS rates were respectively 67.3% and 35.1%. Conclusions: PC is an aggressive cancer particularly in more advanced stage. Overall, more than a third of patients do not survive at 5 years and more than 60% report a disease recurrence, despite the use of a radical treatment

    Changes in renal function after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract carcinoma: analysis of a large multicenter cohort (Radical Nephroureterectomy Outcomes (RaNeO) Research Consortium)

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    Purpose To investigate prevalence and predictors of renal function variation in a multicenter cohort treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods Patients from 17 tertiary centers were included. Renal function variation was evaluated at postoperative day (POD)-1, 6 and 12 months. Timepoints differences were Delta 1 = POD-1 eGFR - baseline eGFR; Delta 2 = 6 months eGFR - POD-1 eGFR; Delta 3 = 12 months eGFR - 6 months eGFR. We defined POD-1 acute kidney injury (AKI) as an increase in serum creatinine by >= 0.3 mg/dl or a 1.5 1.9-fold from baseline. Additionally, a cutoff of 60 ml/min in eGFR was considered to define renal function decline at 6 and 12 months. Logistic regression (LR) and linear mixed (LM) models were used to evaluate the association between clinical factors and eGFR decline and their interaction with follow-up. Results A total of 576 were included, of these 409(71.0%) and 403(70.0%) had an eGFR < 60 ml/min at 6 and 12 months, respectively, and 239(41.5%) developed POD-1 AKI. In multivariable LR analysis, age (Odds Ratio, OR 1.05, p < 0.001), male gender (OR 0.44, p = 0.003), POD-1 AKI (OR 2.88, p < 0.001) and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.58, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 6 months. Age (OR 1.06, p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (OR 2.68, p = 0.007), POD-1 AKI (OR 1.83, p = 0.02), and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.80, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 12 months. In LM models, age (p = 0.019), hydronephrosis (p < 0.001), POD-1 AKI (p < 0.001) and pT-stage (p = 0.001) influenced renal function variation (ss 9.2 +/- 0.7, p < 0.001) during follow-up. Conclusion Age, preoperative eGFR and POD-1 AKI are independent predictors of 6 and 12 months renal function decline after RNU for UTUC
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