4,941 research outputs found

    Searching for continuous gravitational wave sources in binary systems

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    We consider the problem of searching for continuous gravitational wave sources orbiting a companion object. This issue is of particular interest because the LMXB's, and among them Sco X-1, might be marginally detectable with 2 years coherent observation time by the Earth-based laser interferometers expected to come on line by 2002, and clearly observable by the second generation of detectors. Moreover, several radio pulsars, which could be deemed to be CW sources, are found to orbit a companion star or planet, and the LIGO/VIRGO/GEO network plans to continuously monitor such systems. We estimate the computational costs for a search launched over the additional five parameters describing generic elliptical orbits using match filtering techniques. These techniques provide the optimal signal-to-noise ratio and also a very clear and transparent theoretical framework. We provide ready-to-use analytical expressions for the number of templates required to carry out the searches in the astrophysically relevant regions of the parameter space, and how the computational cost scales with the ranges of the parameters. We also determine the critical accuracy to which a particular parameter must be known, so that no search is needed for it. In order to disentangle the computational burden involved in the orbital motion of the CW source, from the other source parameters (position in the sky and spin-down), and reduce the complexity of the analysis, we assume that the source is monochromatic and its location in the sky is exactly known. The orbital elements, on the other hand, are either assumed to be completely unknown or only partly known. We apply our theoretical analysis to Sco X-1 and the neutron stars with binary companions which are listed in the radio pulsar catalogue.Comment: 31 pages, LaTeX, 6 eps figures, submitted to PR

    Boolean versus continuous dynamics on simple two-gene modules

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    We investigate the dynamical behavior of simple modules composed of two genes with two or three regulating connections. Continuous dynamics for mRNA and protein concentrations is compared to a Boolean model for gene activity. Using a generalized method, we study within a single framework different continuous models and different types of regulatory functions, and establish conditions under which the system can display stable oscillations. These conditions concern the time scales, the degree of cooperativity of the regulating interactions, and the signs of the interactions. Not all models that show oscillations under Boolean dynamics can have oscillations under continuous dynamics, and vice versa.Comment: 8 pages, 10 figure

    Recognizable neonatal clinical features of aplasia cutis congenita

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    Background: Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), classified in nine groups, is likely to be underreported, since milder isolated lesions in wellbeing newborns could often be undetected, and solitary lesions in the context of polymalformative syndromes could not always be reported. Regardless of form and cause, therapeutic options have in common the aim to restore the deficient mechanical and immunological cutaneous protection and to limit the risk of fluid leakage or rupture of the exposed organs. We aimed to review our institutional prevalence, comorbidities, treatment and outcome of newborns with ACC. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including all newborns affected by ACC and admitted at the University Mother-Child Department from October 2010 to October 2019. Anthropometric and clinical characteristics of ACC1 versus a non-isolated ACC group were analyzed. Results: We encountered 37 newborns, 16 with ACC1 versus 21 with non-isolated ACC. The incidence rate of 0.1% in ACC1 was higher than expected, while 19% of cases showed intrafamilial autosomal dominant transmission. Higher birth weight centile, though lower than reference population, being adequate for gestational age, normal Apgar score and euglycemia characterizing ACC1 resulted associated to a rapid tissue regeneration. Non-isolated ACC, in relation to concomitant congenital anomalies and higher prematurity rate, showed more surgical and medical complications along with the risk of neonatal death. Specifically, newborns with ACC4 were characterized by the frequent necessity of abdominal wall defect repair, responsible for the occurrence of an abdominal compartment syndrome. Conclusion: Prompt carefully assessment of the newborn with ACC in order to exclude concomitant other congenital malformations, provides clues to the underlying pathophysiology, and to the short-term prognosis. Family should be oriented toward identification of other family members affected by similar pathology, while obstetric history should exclude initial multiple pregnancy with death of a co-twin, placental anomalies and drug assumption. Molecular-genetic diagnosis and genetic counseling are integrative in individualized disease approach

    Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Internet latency: A large-scale study

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    The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically changed the way of living of billions of people in a very short time frame. In this paper, we evaluate the impact on the Internet latency caused by the increased amount of human activities that are carried out on-line. The study focuses on Italy, which experienced significant restrictions imposed by local authorities, but results about Spain, France, Germany, Sweden, and the whole of Europe are also included. The analysis of a large set of measurements shows that the impact on the network can be significant, especially in terms of increased variability of latency. In Italy we observed that the standard deviation of the average additional delay – the additional time with respect to the minimum delay of the paths in the region – during lockdown is ∼3−4 times as much as the value before the pandemic. Similarly, in Italy, packet loss is ∼2−3 times as much as before the pandemic. The impact is not negligible also for the other countries and for the whole of Europe, but with different levels and distinct patterns

    Using Surface Plasmon Resonance to Quantitatively Assess Lipid-Protein Interactions

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    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a quantitative, label-free method for determining molecular interactions in real time. The technology involves fixing a ligand onto a senor chip, measuring a baseline resonance angle, and flowing an analyte in bulk solution over the fixed ligand to measure the subsequent change in resonance angle. The mass of analyte bound to fixed ligand is directly proportional to the resonance angle change and the system is sensitive enough to detect as little as picomolar amounts of analyte in the bulk solution. SPR can be used to determine both the specificity of molecular interactions and the kinetics and affinity of an interaction. This technique has been especially useful in measuring the affinities of lipid-binding proteins to intact liposomes of varying lipid compositions

    Agro-biodiversity in Subsistence Farming Systems of South Somalia – Collection and Agronomic Assessment of Somali Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Germplasm

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    The article gathers important information about sorghum to promote the conservation and future improvement of local sorghum landraces, thus aiding in the stabilisation of a secure and sustainable food resource for farmers of southern Somalia.Maqaalku wuxuu ka koobanyahay warar muhim ah oo ku saabsan masaggada xagga horumarinta kaydinteeda iyo tayadeeda, arrintaasoo wax weyn u tarayso beeralayda koofur Soomaaliya.L'articolo raccoglie importanti informazioni sul sorgo per promuovere la conservazione e il miglioramento delle varietà locali di sorgo, contribuendo così alla stabilizzazione di una risorsa alimentare sostenibile per gli agricoltori del sud della Somalia

    Resting EEG asymmetry markers of multiple facets of the behavioral approach system: a LORETA analysis

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    Previously published models of frontal activity linked high relative left frontal activity to the behavioral approach system (BAS) and impulsivity. Additionally, these models did not account for BAS facets encompassing the anticipation of reward, i.e., goal-driven persistence (BAS–GDP) and reward interest (BAS–RI), from those that deal with the actual hedonic experience of reward, i.e., reward reactivity (BAS–RR) and impulsivity (BAS–I). Using resting electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, the source localization (LORETA) method allowed us to calculate the hemispheric asymmetry of the current density within the alpha band (7.5–13 Hz) in ten regions of interest. Compared to low BAS subtrait scorers, high BAS subtrait scorers (except for BAS–I) were correlated with greater relative left-sided activity in the superior frontal gyrus (BA10). Further, an isolated effective coherence (iCOH) analysis of the beta activity (21 Hz) disclosed that high impulsive scorers as compared to low impulsive ones had higher connectivity between the superior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, which was not compensated for by enhanced inhibitory alpha (11 Hz) connectivity between these regions. For the beta frequency, we also found in highly impulsive individuals that (i) both left and right middle temporal lobes directly influenced the activity of the left and right superior frontal lobes, and (ii) a clear decoupling between left and right superior frontal lobes. These findings could indicate reduced control by the supervisory system in more impulsive individuals

    Eccentric double white dwarfs as LISA sources in globular clusters

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    We consider the formation of double white dwarfs (DWDs) through dynamical interactions in globular clusters. Such interactions can give rise to eccentric DWDs, in contrast to the exclusively circular population expected to form in the Galactic disk. We show that for a 5-year Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission and distances as far as the Large Magellanic Cloud, multiple harmonics from eccentric DWDs can be detected at a signal-to-noise ratio higher than 8 for at least a handful of eccentric DWDs, given their formation rate and typical lifetimes estimated from current cluster simulations. Consequently the association of eccentricity with stellar-mass LISA sources does not uniquely involve neutron stars, as is usually assumed. Due to the difficulty of detecting (eccentric) DWDs with present and planned electromagnetic observatories, LISA could provide unique dynamical identifications of these systems in globular clusters.Comment: Published in ApJ 665, L5

    Gravitational-Wave Astronomy with Inspiral Signals of Spinning Compact-Object Binaries

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    Inspiral signals from binary compact objects (black holes and neutron stars) are primary targets of the ongoing searches by ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers (LIGO, Virgo, GEO-600 and TAMA-300). We present parameter-estimation simulations for inspirals of black-hole--neutron-star binaries using Markov-chain Monte-Carlo methods. For the first time, we have both estimated the parameters of a binary inspiral source with a spinning component and determined the accuracy of the parameter estimation, for simulated observations with ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We demonstrate that we can obtain the distance, sky position, and binary orientation at a higher accuracy than previously suggested in the literature. For an observation of an inspiral with sufficient spin and two or three detectors we find an accuracy in the determination of the sky position of typically a few tens of square degrees.Comment: v2: major conceptual changes, 4 pages, 1 figure, 1 table, submitted to ApJ
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