7,364 research outputs found

    LISA astronomy of double white dwarf binary systems

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    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will provide the largest observational sample of (interacting) double white dwarf binaries, whose evolution is driven by radiation reaction and other effects, such as tides and mass transfer. We show that, depending on the actual physical parameters of a source, LISA will be able to provide very different quality of information: for some systems LISA can test unambiguously the physical processes driving the binary evolution, for others it can simply detect a binary without allowing us to untangle the source parameters and therefore shed light on the physics at work. We also highlight that simultaneous surveys with GAIA and/or optical telescopes that are and will become available can radically improve the quality of the information that can be obtained.Comment: accepted for publication in ApJLetter

    Access to urban opportunities: Mending the urban-rural divide in metropolitan areas

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    Contemporary urban settings can rely on inedited opportunities for everyday mobility. Paradoxically, thanks to infrastructure and digital technologies our territories are more and more connected, while our societies appear to be more divided than ever. The new, endless mobilities opportunities are not enough to facilitate the interactions between people and places; rather, the divide between the urban and the rural is once more relevant, showing opposite attitudes – rational or emotional – towards ongoing social changes. Everyday mobility provides in fact differentiated opportunities to participate in social life, according to varied urban populations. The paper aims to investigate how to face urban mobility according to its impact on the opportunities available to individuals. Access to opportunities is crucial both to improve personal well-being, both to provide those conditions that increase the attractiveness and the competitiveness of a territory. In metropolitan areas, the issue acquires a specific relevance, given that their urban and rural parts show very different performances in terms of access to significant services and opportunities. Access emerges thus as a relevant guiding principle when evaluating the urban mobility strategies of metropolitan areas, helping to consider which infrastructures and services contribute more to support individual opportunities. To explore this issue and its specific inflection in metropolitan areas, the paper investigates an emerging new urban-rural divide, as expressed by mobility and access to urban opportunities in metropolitan areas (section 2). Emerging practices highlight new forms of mobility as well as inedited ways of participating in urban life (section 3). Consequently, new evaluative and operational approaches for urban mobility planning and policy are required (section 4), especially to understand how everyday mobility can contribute to development in increasingly divided societies (section 5)

    Media use during adolescence: the recommendations of the Italian Pediatric Society.

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    BACKGROUND: The use of media device, such as smartphone and tablet, is currently increasing, especially among the youngest. Adolescents spend more and more time with their smartphones consulting social media, mainly Facebook, Instagram and Twitter because. Adolescents often feel the necessity to use a media device as a means to construct a social identity and express themselves. For some children, smartphone ownership starts even sooner as young as 7 yrs, according to internet safety experts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the evidence on media use and its consequences in adolescence. RESULTS: In literature, smartphones and tablets use may negatively influences the psychophysical development of the adolescent, such as learning, sleep and sigh. Moreover, obesity, distraction, addiction, cyberbullism and Hikikomori phenomena are described in adolescents who use media device too frequently. The Italian Pediatric Society provide action-oriented recommendations for families and clinicians to avoid negative outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Both parents and clinicians should be aware of the widespread phenomenon of media device use among adolescents and try to avoid psychophysical consequences on the youngest

    Recognizable neonatal clinical features of aplasia cutis congenita

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    Background: Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), classified in nine groups, is likely to be underreported, since milder isolated lesions in wellbeing newborns could often be undetected, and solitary lesions in the context of polymalformative syndromes could not always be reported. Regardless of form and cause, therapeutic options have in common the aim to restore the deficient mechanical and immunological cutaneous protection and to limit the risk of fluid leakage or rupture of the exposed organs. We aimed to review our institutional prevalence, comorbidities, treatment and outcome of newborns with ACC. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including all newborns affected by ACC and admitted at the University Mother-Child Department from October 2010 to October 2019. Anthropometric and clinical characteristics of ACC1 versus a non-isolated ACC group were analyzed. Results: We encountered 37 newborns, 16 with ACC1 versus 21 with non-isolated ACC. The incidence rate of 0.1% in ACC1 was higher than expected, while 19% of cases showed intrafamilial autosomal dominant transmission. Higher birth weight centile, though lower than reference population, being adequate for gestational age, normal Apgar score and euglycemia characterizing ACC1 resulted associated to a rapid tissue regeneration. Non-isolated ACC, in relation to concomitant congenital anomalies and higher prematurity rate, showed more surgical and medical complications along with the risk of neonatal death. Specifically, newborns with ACC4 were characterized by the frequent necessity of abdominal wall defect repair, responsible for the occurrence of an abdominal compartment syndrome. Conclusion: Prompt carefully assessment of the newborn with ACC in order to exclude concomitant other congenital malformations, provides clues to the underlying pathophysiology, and to the short-term prognosis. Family should be oriented toward identification of other family members affected by similar pathology, while obstetric history should exclude initial multiple pregnancy with death of a co-twin, placental anomalies and drug assumption. Molecular-genetic diagnosis and genetic counseling are integrative in individualized disease approach

    LISA Response Function and Parameter Estimation

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    We investigate the response function of LISA and consider the adequacy of its commonly used approximation in the high-frequency range of the observational band. We concentrate on monochromatic binary systems, such as white dwarf binaries. We find that above a few mHz the approxmation starts becoming increasingly inaccurate. The transfer function introduces additional amplitude and phase modulations in the measured signal that influence parameter estmation and, if not properly accounted for, lead to losses of signal-to-noise ratio.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, amaldi 5 conference proceeding

    LISA data analysis: The monochromatic binary detection and initial guess problems

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    We consider the detection and initial guess problems for the LISA gravitational wave detector. The detection problem is the problem of how to determine if there is a signal present in instrumental data and how to identify it. Because of the Doppler and plane-precession spreading of the spectral power of the LISA signal, the usual power spectrum approach to detection will have difficulty identifying sources. A better method must be found. The initial guess problem involves how to generate {\it a priori} values for the parameters of a parameter-estimation problem that are close enough to the final values for a linear least-squares estimator to converge to the correct result. A useful approach to simultaneously solving the detection and initial guess problems for LISA is to divide the sky into many pixels and to demodulate the Doppler spreading for each set of pixel coordinates. The demodulated power spectra may then be searched for spectral features. We demonstrate that the procedure works well as a first step in the search for gravitational waves from monochromatic binaries.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figure

    Resting EEG asymmetry markers of multiple facets of the behavioral approach system: a LORETA analysis

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    Previously published models of frontal activity linked high relative left frontal activity to the behavioral approach system (BAS) and impulsivity. Additionally, these models did not account for BAS facets encompassing the anticipation of reward, i.e., goal-driven persistence (BAS–GDP) and reward interest (BAS–RI), from those that deal with the actual hedonic experience of reward, i.e., reward reactivity (BAS–RR) and impulsivity (BAS–I). Using resting electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, the source localization (LORETA) method allowed us to calculate the hemispheric asymmetry of the current density within the alpha band (7.5–13 Hz) in ten regions of interest. Compared to low BAS subtrait scorers, high BAS subtrait scorers (except for BAS–I) were correlated with greater relative left-sided activity in the superior frontal gyrus (BA10). Further, an isolated effective coherence (iCOH) analysis of the beta activity (21 Hz) disclosed that high impulsive scorers as compared to low impulsive ones had higher connectivity between the superior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, which was not compensated for by enhanced inhibitory alpha (11 Hz) connectivity between these regions. For the beta frequency, we also found in highly impulsive individuals that (i) both left and right middle temporal lobes directly influenced the activity of the left and right superior frontal lobes, and (ii) a clear decoupling between left and right superior frontal lobes. These findings could indicate reduced control by the supervisory system in more impulsive individuals
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