3,566 research outputs found

    Canonical Quantization of Spherically Symmetric Dust Collapse

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    Quantum gravity effects are likely to play a crucial role in determining the outcome of gravitational collapse during its final stages. In this contribution we will outline a canonical quantization of the LeMaitre-Tolman-Bondi models, which describe the collapse of spherical, inhomogeneous, non-rotating dust. Although there are many models of gravitational collapse, this particular class of models stands out for its simplicity and the fact that both black holes and naked singularity end states may be realized on the classical level, depending on the initial conditions. We will obtain the appropriate Wheeler-DeWitt equation and then solve it exactly, after regularization on a spatial lattice. The solutions describe Hawking radiation and provide an elegant microcanonical description of black hole entropy, but they raise other questions, most importantly concerning the nature of gravity's fundamental degrees of freedom.Comment: 19 pages no figures. Contribution to a festschrift in honor of Joshua N. Goldber

    Non-Markovian Dynamics of Charge Carriers in Quantum Dots

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    We have investigated the dynamics of bound particles in multilevel current-carrying quantum dots. We look specifically in the regime of resonant tunnelling transport, where several channels are available for transport. Through a non-Markovian formalism under the Born approximation, we investigate the real-time evolution of the confined particles including transport-induced decoherence and relaxation. In the case of a coherent superposition between states with different particle number, we find that a Fock-space coherence may be preserved even in the presence of tunneling into and out of the dot. Real-time results are presented for various asymmetries of tunneling rates into different orbitals.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures, International Workshop on Physics-Based Mathematical Models for Low-Dimensional Semiconductor Nanostructures. BIRS, November 18-23, 200

    Quantum Gravitational Collapse and Hawking Radiation in 2+1 Dimensions

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    We develop the canonical theory of gravitational collapse in 2+1 dimensions with a negative cosmological constant and obtain exact solutions of the Wheeler--DeWitt equation regularized on a lattice. We employ these solutions to derive the Hawking radiation from black holes formed in all models of dust collapse. We obtain an (approximate) Planck spectrum near the horizon characterized by the Hawking temperature TH=‚ĄŹGőõM/2ŌÄT_{\mathrm H}=\hbar\sqrt{G\Lambda M}/2\pi, where MM is the mass of a black hole that is presumed to form at the center of the collapsing matter cloud and ‚ąíőõ-\Lambda is the cosmological constant. Our solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation are exact, so we are able to reliably compute the greybody factors that result from going beyond the near horizon region.Comment: 27 pages, no figure

    Quantum general relativity and Hawking radiation

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    In a previous paper we have set up the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which describes the quantum general relativistic collapse of a spherical dust cloud. In the present paper we specialize this equation to the case of matter perturbations around a black hole, and show that in the WKB approximation, the wave-functional describes an eternal black hole in equilibrium with a thermal bath at Hawking temperature.Comment: 13 pages, minor revisions in: (i) para 5 of Introduction, (ii) para following Eqn. (10). Revised version to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Near-Infrared Time-Series Photometry in the Field of Cygnus OB2 Association I - Rotational Scenario For Candidate Members

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    In the last decades, the early pre main sequence stellar rotational evolution picture has been constrained by studies targeting different young regions at a variety of ages. Observational studies suggest a mass-rotation dependence, and for some mass ranges a connection between rotation and the presence of a circumstellar disk. Not still fully explored, though, is the role of environmental conditions on the rotational regulation. We investigate the rotational properties of candidate members of the young massive association Cygnus OB2. The Stetson variability index, Lomb-Scargle periodogram, Saunders statistics, string/rope length method, and visual verification of folded light curves were applied to select 1224 periodic variable stars. Completeness and contamination of the periodic sample was derived from Monte Carlo simulations, out of which 894 periods were considered reliable. Our study was considered reasonably complete for periods from 2 to 30 days. The general rotational scenario seen in other young regions is confirmed by Cygnus OB2 period distributions, with disked stars rotating on average slower than non-disked stars. A mass-rotation dependence was also verified, but as in NGC 6530, lower mass stars are rotating on average slower than higher mass stars, with an excess of slow rotators among the lower mass population. The effect of the environment on the rotational properties of the association was investigated by re-analysing the results while taking into account the incident UV radiation arising from O stars in the association. Results compatible with the disk-locking scenario were verified for stars with low UV incidence, but no statistical significant relation between rotation and disk presence was verified for stars with high UV incidence suggesting that massive stars can have an important role on regulating the rotation of nearby low mass stars.Comment: Submitted on December 23, 201
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