870 research outputs found

    Genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic correlation with climatic variation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) landraces from Pakistan

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    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) production in arid regions, such as those predominant in Pakistan, faces immense challenges of drought and heat stress. Addressing these challenges is made more difficult by the lack of genetic and phenotypic characterization of available cultivated varieties and breeding materials. Genotyping-by-sequencing offers a rapid and cost-effective means to identify genome-wide nucleotide variation in crop germplasm. When combined with extended crop phenotypes deduced from climatic variation at sites of collection, the data can predict which portions of genetic variation might have roles in climate resilience. Here we use 8113 single nucleotide polymorphism markers to determine genetic variation and compare population structure within a previously uncharacterized collection of 77 landraces and 5 elite cultivars, currently grown in situ on farms throughout the chickpea growing regions of Pakistan. The compiled landraces span a striking aridity gradient into the Thal Desert of the Punjab. Despite low levels of variation across the collection and limited genetic structure, we found some differentiation between accessions from arid, semiarid, irrigated, and coastal areas. In a subset of 232 markers, we found evidence of differentiation along gradients of elevation and isothermality. Our results highlight the utility of exploring large germplasm collections for nucleotide variation associated with environmental extremes, and the use of such data to nominate germplasm accessions with the potential to improve crop drought tolerance and other environmental traits

    Efficiency of Finding Muon Track Trigger Primitives in CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

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    In the CMS Experiment, muon detection in the forward direction is accomplished by cathode strip chambers~(CSC). These detectors identify muons, provide a fast muon trigger, and give a precise measurement of the muon trajectory. There are 468 six-plane CSCs in the system. The efficiency of finding muon trigger primitives (muon track segments) was studied using~36 CMS CSCs and cosmic ray muons during the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge~(MTCC) exercise conducted by the~CMS experiment in~2006. In contrast to earlier studies that used muon beams to illuminate a very small chamber area (<‚ÄČ‚Ā£0.01< \! 0.01~m2^2), results presented in this paper were obtained by many installed CSCs operating {\em in situ} over an area of ‚Čą‚ÄČ‚Ā£23\approx \! 23~m2^2 as a part of the~CMS experiment. The efficiency of finding 2-dimensional trigger primitives within 6-layer chambers was found to be~99.93¬Ī0.03%99.93 \pm 0.03\%. These segments, found by the CSC electronics within 800800~ns after the passing of a muon through the chambers, are the input information for the Level-1 muon trigger and, also, are a necessary condition for chambers to be read out by the Data Acquisition System

    Penilaian Kinerja Keuangan Koperasi di Kabupaten Pelalawan

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    This paper describe development and financial performance of cooperative in District Pelalawan among 2007 - 2008. Studies on primary and secondary cooperative in 12 sub-districts. Method in this stady use performance measuring of productivity, efficiency, growth, liquidity, and solvability of cooperative. Productivity of cooperative in Pelalawan was highly but efficiency still low. Profit and income were highly, even liquidity of cooperative very high, and solvability was good

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV