95 research outputs found

    Acoustically swept rotor

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    Impulsive noise reduction is provided in a rotor blade by acoustically sweeping the chord line from root to tip so that the acoustic radiation resulting from the summation of potential singularities used to model the flow about the blade tend to cancel for all times at an observation point in the acoustic far field

    Trajectory-Based Loads for the Ares I-X Test Flight Vehicle

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    In trajectory-based loads, the structural engineer treats each point on the trajectory as a load case. Distributed aero, inertial, and propulsion forces are developed for the structural model which are equivalent to the integrated values of the trajectory model. Free-body diagrams are then used to solve for the internal forces, or loads, that keep the applied aero, inertial, and propulsion forces in dynamic equilibrium. There are several advantages to using trajectory-based loads. First, consistency is maintained between the integrated equilibrium equations of the trajectory analysis and the distributed equilibrium equations of the structural analysis. Second, the structural loads equations are tied to the uncertainty model for the trajectory systems analysis model. Atmosphere, aero, propulsion, mass property, and controls uncertainty models all feed into the dispersions that are generated for the trajectory systems analysis model. Changes in any of these input models will affect structural loads response. The trajectory systems model manages these inputs as well as the output from the structural model over thousands of dispersed cases. Large structural models with hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom would execute too slowly to be an efficient part of several thousand system analyses. Trajectory-based loads provide a means for the structures discipline to be included in the integrated systems analysis. Successful applications of trajectory-based loads methods for the Ares I-X vehicle are covered in this paper. Preliminary design loads were based on 2000 trajectories using Monte Carlo dispersions. Range safety loads were tied to 8423 malfunction turn trajectories. In addition, active control system loads were based on 2000 preflight trajectories using Monte Carlo dispersions

    Studies of the thermal and optical responses of H atoms in solid H2

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    It was the goal of this reserch project to model both the storage of energy in solid hydrogen in the form of atoms and the conversion of this stored energy into other forms of useful energy. The basic ideas of rocket propulsion originate in classical physics and they remain unchanged. To escape a strong gravitational field, the 'burn time' must be minimized but in negligible force fields, the burn time is unimportant and only the relative masses of rocket to fuel determine a specific exhaust velocity. It is in this latter case that low mass fuels such as hydrogen become very important. The burning of hydrogen in oxygen is a 'benchmark' fuel today providing a specific impulse of 400 seconds or better. More exotic fuels will be needed for many of the interesting explorations of the future but they still must have large energy releases per unit mass. It is in this context that propulsion based on hydrogen atom recombination receives attention and these studies will serve as engineering guides

    Effective Magnetic Hamiltonian and Ginzburg Criterion for Fluids

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    We develop further the approach of Hubbard and Schofield (Phys.Lett., A40 (1972) 245), which maps the fluid Hamiltonian onto a magnetic one. We show that all coefficients of the resulting effective Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson (LGW) Hamiltonian may be expressed in terms of the compressibility of a reference fluid containing only repulsive interactions, and its density derivatives; we calculate the first few coefficients in the case of the hard-core reference fluid. From this LGW-Hamiltonian we deduce approximate mean-field relations between critical parameters and test them on data for Lennard-Jones, square-well and hard-core-Yukawa fluids. We estimate the Ginzburg criterion for these fluids.Comment: 4 pages, LaTeX, To appear in Phys.Rev.

    Optical pulse labeling studies reveal exogenous seeding slows ╬▒-synuclein clearance

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    The accumulation of ╬▒-synuclein (╬▒-syn) in intracellular formations known as Lewy bodies (LBs) is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Lewy Body Dementia. There is still limited understanding of how ╬▒-syn and LB formation is associated with cellular dysfunction and degeneration in these diseases. To examine the clearance and production dynamics of ╬▒-syn we transduced organotypic murine brain slice cultures (BSCs) with recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) to express Dendra2-tagged human wild-type (WT) and mutant A53T ╬▒-syn, with and without the addition of exogenous ╬▒-syn fibrillar seeds and tracked them over several weeks in culture using optical pulse labeling. We found that neurons expressing WT or mutant A53T human ╬▒-syn show similar rates of ╬▒-syn turnover even when insoluble, phosphorylated Ser129 ╬▒-syn has accumulated. Taken together, this data reveals ╬▒-syn aggregation and overexpression, pSer129 ╬▒-syn, nor the A53T mutation affect ╬▒-syn dynamics in this system. Prion-type seeding with exogenous ╬▒-syn fibrils significantly slows ╬▒-syn turnover, in the absence of toxicity but is associated with the accumulation of anti-p62 immunoreactivity and Thiazin Red positivity. Prion-type induction of ╬▒-syn aggregation points towards a potential protein clearance deficit in the presence of fibrillar seeds and the ease of this system to explore precise mechanisms underlying these processes. This system facilitates the exploration of ╬▒-syn protein dynamics over long-term culture periods. This platform can further be exploited to provide mechanistic insight on what drives this slowing of ╬▒-syn turnover and how therapeutics, other genes or different ╬▒-syn mutations may affect ╬▒-syn protein dynamics

    A study of facilities and fixtures for testing of a high speed civil transport wing component

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    A study was performed to determine the feasibility of testing a large-scale High Speed Civil Transport wing component in the Structures and Materials Testing Laboratory in Building 1148 at NASA Langley Research Center. The report includes a survey of the electrical and hydraulic resources and identifies the backing structure and floor hard points which would be available for reacting the test loads. The backing structure analysis uses a new finite element model of the floor and backstop support system in the Structures Laboratory. Information on the data acquisition system and the thermal power requirements is also presented. The study identified the hardware that would be required to test a typical component, including the number and arrangement of hydraulic actuators required to simulate expected flight loads. Load introduction and reaction structure concepts were analyzed to investigate the effects of experimentally induced boundary conditions

    Observations of DG Tauri with the Keck Interferometer

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    We present the first science results from the Keck Interferometer, a direct-detection infrared interferometer utilizing the two 10-meter Keck telescopes. The instrument and system components are briefly described. We then present observations of the T Tauri object DG Tau, which is resolved by the interferometer. The resolved component has a radius of 0.12 to 0.24 AU, depending on the assumed stellar and extended component fluxes and the model geometry used. Possible origins and implications of the resolved emission are discussed.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures, to appear in ApJ Letter

    Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits, and economic implications:Working paper analysing the economic implications of the proposed 30% target for areal protection in the draft post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

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    Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits, and economic implications:Working paper analysing the economic implications of the proposed 30% target for areal protection in the draft post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

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    Effects of ecosystem protection on scallop populations within a community-led temperate marine reserve

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    This study investigated the effects of a newly established, fully protected marine reserve on benthic habitats and two commercially valuable species of scallop in Lamlash Bay, Isle of Arran, United Kingdom. Annual dive surveys from 2010 to 2013 showed the abundance of juvenile scallops to be significantly greater within the marine reserve than outside. Generalised linear models revealed this trend to be significantly related to the greater presence of macroalgae and hydroids growing within the boundaries of the reserve. These results suggest that structurally complex habitats growing within the reserve have substantially increased spat settlement and/or survival. The density of adult king scallops declined threefold with increasing distance from the boundaries of the reserve, indicating possible evidence of spillover or reduced fishing effort directly outside and around the marine reserve. However, there was no difference in the mean density of adult scallops between the reserve and outside. Finally, the mean age, size, and reproductive and exploitable biomass of king scallops were all significantly greater within the reserve. In contrast to king scallops, the population dynamics of queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) fluctuated randomly over the survey period and showed little difference between the reserve and outside. Overall, this study is consistent with the hypothesis that marine reserves can encourage the recovery of seafloor habitats, which, in turn, can benefit populations of commercially exploited species, emphasising the importance of marine reserves in the ecosystem-based management of fisheries
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