1,645 research outputs found

    Active Learning for Undirected Graphical Model Selection

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    This paper studies graphical model selection, i.e., the problem of estimating a graph of statistical relationships among a collection of random variables. Conventional graphical model selection algorithms are passive, i.e., they require all the measurements to have been collected before processing begins. We propose an active learning algorithm that uses junction tree representations to adapt future measurements based on the information gathered from prior measurements. We prove that, under certain conditions, our active learning algorithm requires fewer scalar measurements than any passive algorithm to reliably estimate a graph. A range of numerical results validate our theory and demonstrates the benefits of active learning.Comment: AISTATS 201

    Alemtuzumab pre-conditioning with tacrolimus monotherapy in pediatric renal transplantation

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    We employed antibody pre-conditioning with alemtuzumab and posttransplant immunosuppression with low-dose tacrolimus monotherapy in 26 consecutive pediatric kidney transplant recipients between January 2004 and December 2005. Mean recipient age was 10.7 ± 5.8 years, 7.7% were undergoing retransplantation, and 3.8% were sensitized, with a PRA >20%. Mean donor age was 32.8 ± 9.2 years. Living donors were utilized in 65% of the transplants. Mean cold ischemia time was 27.6 ± 6.4 h. The mean number of HLA mismatches was 3.3 ± 1.3. Mean follow-up was 25 ± 8 months. One and 2 year patient survival was 100% and 96%. One and 2 year graft survival was 96% and 88%. Mean serum creatinine was 1.1 ± 0.6 mg/dL, and calculated creatinine clearance was 82.3 ± 29.4 mL/min/1.73 m 2. The incidence of pre-weaning acute rejection was 11.5%; the incidence of delayed graft function was 7.7%. Eighteen (69%) of the children were tapered to spaced tacrolimus monotherapy, 10.5 ± 2.2 months after transplantation. The incidence of CMV, PTLD and BK virus was 0%; the incidence of posttransplant diabetes was 7.7%. Although more follow-up is clearly needed, antibody pre-conditioning with alemtuzumab and tacrolimus monotherapy may be a safe and effective regimen in pediatric renal transplantation. © 2007 The Authors

    Beyond single-photon localization at the edge of a Photonic Band Gap

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    We study spontaneous emission in an atomic ladder system, with both transitions coupled near-resonantly to the edge of a photonic band gap continuum. The problem is solved through a recently developed technique and leads to the formation of a ``two-photon+atom'' bound state with fractional population trapping in both upper states. In the long-time limit, the atom can be found excited in a superposition of the upper states and a ``direct'' two-photon process coexists with the stepwise one. The sensitivity of the effect to the particular form of the density of states is also explored.Comment: to appear in Physical Review

    Novel Collective Effects in Integrated Photonics

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    Superradiance, the enhanced collective emission of energy from a coherent ensemble of quantum systems, has been typically studied in atomic ensembles. In this work we study theoretically the enhanced emission of energy from coherent ensembles of harmonic oscillators. We show that it should be possible to observe harmonic oscillator superradiance for the first time in waveguide arrays in integrated photonics. Furthermore, we describe how pairwise correlations within the ensemble can be measured with this architecture. These pairwise correlations are an integral part of the phenomenon of superradiance and have never been observed in experiments to date.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Non-Markovian quantum trajectories for spectral detection

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    We present a formulation of non-Markovian quantum trajectories for open systems from a measurement theory perspective. In our treatment there are three distinct ways in which non-Markovian behavior can arise; a mode dependent coupling between bath (reservoir) and system, a dispersive bath, and by spectral detection of the output into the bath. In the first two cases the non-Markovian behavior is intrinsic to the interaction, in the third case the non-Markovian behavior arises from the method of detection. We focus in detail on the trajectories which simulate real-time spectral detection of the light emitted from a localized system. In this case, the non-Markovian behavior arises from the uncertainty in the time of emission of particles that are later detected. The results of computer simulations of the spectral detection of the spontaneous emission from a strongly driven two-level atom are presented

    Multimodal imaging of pancreatic beta cells in vivo by targeting transmembrane protein 27 (TMEM27)

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    Aims/hypothesis: Non-invasive diagnostic tools specific for pancreatic beta cells will have a profound impact on our understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. The objective of this study was to use molecular imaging probes specifically targeting beta cells on human samples and animal models using state-of-the-art imaging modalities (fluorescence and PET) with preclinical and clinical perspective. Methods: We generated a monoclonal antibody, 8/9-mAb, targeting transmembrane protein 27 (TMEM27; a surface N-glycoprotein that is highly expressed on beta cells), compared its expression in human and mouse pancreas, and demonstrated beta cell-specific binding in both. In vivo imaging was performed in mice with subcutaneous insulinomas overexpressing the human TMEM27 gene, or transgenic mice with beta cell-specific hTMEM27 expression under the control of rat insulin promoter (RIP-hTMEM27-tg), using fluorescence and radioactively labelled antibody, followed by tissue ex vivo analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Results: Fluorescently labelled 8/9-mAb showed beta cell-specific staining on human and mouse pancreatic sections. Real-time PCR on islet cDNA indicated about tenfold higher expression of hTMEM27 in RIP-hTMEM27-tg mice than in humans. In vivo fluorescence and PET imaging in nude mice with insulinoma xenografts expressing hTMEM27 showed high 8/9-mAb uptake in tumours after 72h. Antibody homing was also observed in beta cells of RIP-hTMEM27-tg mice by in vivo fluorescence imaging. Ex vivo analysis of intact pancreas and fluorescence microscopy in beta cells confirmed these findings. Conclusions/interpretation: hTMEM27 constitutes an attractive target for in vivo visualisation of pancreatic beta cells. Studies in mouse insulinoma models and mice expressing hTMEM27 demonstrate the feasibility of beta cell-targeted in vivo imaging, which is attractive for preclinical investigations and holds potential in clinical diagnostic

    Continued cooling of the accretion-heated neutron star crust in the X-ray transient IGR J17480-2446 located in the globular cluster Terzan 5

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    We present a new Chandra observation (performed in July 2016) of the neutron star X-ray transient IGR J17480-2446, located in the globular cluster Terzan 5. We study the continued cooling of the neutron star crust in this system that was heated during the 2010 outburst of the source. This new observation was performed two years after the last observation of IGR J17480-2446, hence, significantly extending the cooling baseline. We reanalysed all available Chandra observations of the source (but excluding observations during which one of the known transients in Terzan 5 was in outburst) and fitted the obtained cooling curve with our cooling code NSCool, which allows for much improved modelling than what was previously performed for the source. The data and our fit models indicate that the crust was still cooling ~5.5 years after the outburst ended. The neutron star crust has likely not reached crust-core thermal equilibrium yet, and further cooling is predicted (which can be confirmed with additional Chandra observations in >5 years). Intriguingly, we find indications that the thermal conductivity might be relatively low in part of the crust compared to what has been inferred for other crust-cooling sources and tentatively suggest that this layer might be located around the neutron drip. The reason for this difference is unclear, but might be related to the fact that IGR J17480-2446 harbours a relatively slowly rotating neutron star (with a spin of 11 Hz) that has a relatively strong inferred surface magnetic field (1091010^{9-10} Gauss) compared to what is known or typically assumed for other cooling sources.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures, 4 tables, accepted for publication in MNRA
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