45 research outputs found

    DsTau: Study of tau neutrino production with 400 GeV protons from the CERN-SPS

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    In the DsTau experiment at the CERN SPS, an independent and direct way to measure tau neutrino production following high energy proton interactions was proposed. As the main source of tau neutrinos is a decay of Ds mesons, produced in proton-nucleus interactions, the project aims at measuring a differential cross section of this reaction. The experimental method is based on a use of high resolution emulsion detectors for effective registration of events with short lived particle decays. Here we present the motivation of the study, details of the experimental technique, and the first results of the analysis of the data collected during test runs, which prove feasibility of the full scale study of the process in future

    Crowdsourcing Fungal Biodiversity : Revision of Inaturalist Observations in Northwestern Siberia

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    The paper presents the first analysis of crowdsourcing data of all observations of fungi (including lichens) and myxomycetes in Northwestern Siberia uploaded to iNaturalist.org to date (24.02.2022). The Introduction presents an analysis of fungal diversity crowdsourcing globally, in Russia, and in the region of interest. Materials and methods describe the protocol of uploading data to iNaturalist.org, the structure of the crowdsourcing community. initiative to revise the accumulated data. procedures of data analysis, and compilation of a dataset of revised crowdsourced data. The Results present the analysis of accumulated data by several parameters: temporal, geographical and taxonomical scope, observation and identification efforts, identifiability of various taxa, species novelty and Red Data Book categories and the protection status of registered observations. The Discussion provides data on usability of crowdsourcing data for biodiversity research and conservation of fungi, including pros and contras. The Electronic Supplements to the paper include an annotated checklist of observations of protected species with information on Red Data Book categories and the protection status, and an annotated checklist of regional records of new taxa. The paper is supplemented with a dataset of about 15 000 revised and annotated records available through Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The tradition of crowdsourcing is rooted in mycological societies around the world, including Russia. In Northwestern Siberia, a regional mycological club was established in 2018, encouraging its members to contribute observations of fungi on iNaturalist.org. A total of about 15 000 observations of fungi and myxomycetes were uploaded so far, by about 200 observers, from three administrative regions (Yamalo-Nenetsky Autonomous Okrug, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, and Tyumen Region). The geographical coverage of crowdsourcing observations remains low. However. the observation activity has increased in the last four years. The goal of this study consisted of a collaborative effort of professional mycologists invited to help with the identification of these observations and analysis of the accumulated data. As a result, all observations were reviewed by at least one expert. About half of all the observations have been identified reliably to the species level and received Research Grade status. Of those, 90 species (195 records) represented records of taxa new to their respective regions: 876 records of 53 species of protected species provide important data for conservation programmes. The other half of the observations consists of records still under-identified for various reasons: poor quality photographs, complex taxa (impossible to identify without microscopic or molecular study). or lack of experts in a particular taxonomic group. The Discussion section summarises the pros and cons of the use of crowdsourcing for the study and conservation of regional fungal diversity, and summarises the dispute on this subject among mycologists. Further research initiatives involving crowdsourcing data must focus on an increase in the quality of observations and strive to introduce the habit of collecting voucher specimens among the community of amateurs. The timely feedback from experts is also important to provide quality and the increase of personal involvement.Peer reviewe

    Chronicles of nature calendar, a long-term and large-scale multitaxon database on phenology

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    We present an extensive, large-scale, long-term and multitaxon database on phenological and climatic variation, involving 506,186 observation dates acquired in 471 localities in Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan. The data cover the period 1890-2018, with 96% of the data being from 1960 onwards. The database is rich in plants, birds and climatic events, but also includes insects, amphibians, reptiles and fungi. The database includes multiple events per species, such as the onset days of leaf unfolding and leaf fall for plants, and the days for first spring and last autumn occurrences for birds. The data were acquired using standardized methods by permanent staff of national parks and nature reserves (87% of the data) and members of a phenological observation network (13% of the data). The database is valuable for exploring how species respond in their phenology to climate change. Large-scale analyses of spatial variation in phenological response can help to better predict the consequences of species and community responses to climate change.Peer reviewe

    Phenological shifts of abiotic events, producers and consumers across a continent

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    Ongoing climate change can shift organism phenology in ways that vary depending on species, habitats and climate factors studied. To probe for large-scale patterns in associated phenological change, we use 70,709 observations from six decades of systematic monitoring across the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Among 110 phenological events related to plants, birds, insects, amphibians and fungi, we find a mosaic of change, defying simple predictions of earlier springs, later autumns and stronger changes at higher latitudes and elevations. Site mean temperature emerged as a strong predictor of local phenology, but the magnitude and direction of change varied with trophic level and the relative timing of an event. Beyond temperature-associated variation, we uncover high variation among both sites and years, with some sites being characterized by disproportionately long seasons and others by short ones. Our findings emphasize concerns regarding ecosystem integrity and highlight the difficulty of predicting climate change outcomes. The authors use systematic monitoring across the former USSR to investigate phenological changes across taxa. The long-term mean temperature of a site emerged as a strong predictor of phenological change, with further imprints of trophic level, event timing, site, year and biotic interactions.Peer reviewe

    First Direct Observation of Collider Neutrinos with FASER at the LHC

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    We report the first direct observation of neutrino interactions at a particle collider experiment. Neutrino candidate events are identified in a 13.6 TeV center-of-mass energy pppp collision data set of 35.4 fb−1{}^{-1} using the active electronic components of the FASER detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The candidates are required to have a track propagating through the entire length of the FASER detector and be consistent with a muon neutrino charged-current interaction. We infer 153−13+12153^{+12}_{-13} neutrino interactions with a significance of 16 standard deviations above the background-only hypothesis. These events are consistent with the characteristics expected from neutrino interactions in terms of secondary particle production and spatial distribution, and they imply the observation of both neutrinos and anti-neutrinos with an incident neutrino energy of significantly above 200 GeV.Comment: Submitted to PRL on March 24 202

    Experiment DsTau (NA65) - study of tau neutrino production at CERN SPS

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    The goal of the DsTau (NA65) experiment at CERN SPS is the measurement of tau neutrino production. The dominant source of tau neutrinos is decay of DsD_s mesons, produced in proton-nucleon interactions, to tau neutrino and tau lepton with further decay of tau lepton. Thus, the experiment aims to measure differential cross section of this reaction. This measurement will allow to re-evaluate DONuT results reducing the systematic error in tau neutrino interaction cross section caused by the tau neutrino flux uncertainty in beam dump experiments from 50\% to 10\%. Such accuracy of cross section measurement will allow testing the Lepton Flavour Universality for neutrinos. The experiment exploits nuclear emulsion detectors with μ\mum space resolution allowing to recognize the peculiar DsD_s to τ\tau decay topology in a few mm range. In addition, about 10510^5 charmed particle decays are expected in the experiment, which makes possible to study charm physics, in particular to search for intrinsic charm component in proton. About 10\% of whole data were collected during 2018 pilot run and analysis of this sample is ongoing. Given the relevance of the study and encouraging results of the data analysis, CERN had approved the DsTau project as a new experiment NA65 in 2019. The main data sample will be collected in 2021-22 physics runs. In this paper, the status and prospects of NA65 as well as the results of the pilot run are presented

    Muon Radiography Method for Non-Invasive Probing an Archaeological Site in the Naryn-Kala Citadel

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    The paper presents the test experiment to investigate one of UNESCO’s (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) world heritage objects, an archaeological site in the Naryn-Kala citadel (Derbent, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation) hidden under the ground’s surface. The function of the site could be revealed by the muon radiography studies. Several nuclear emulsion detectors were exposed for two months inside the site at a depth about 10 m from the modern surface. The use of nuclear emulsions as probing radiation detectors combined with the potential of modern image analysis methods provides for a uniquely high resolution capacity of recording instrumentation and 3D reconstruction of the internal structure of the investigated object. Here we present the experiment and data analysis details and the first results

    Differences in spatial versus temporal reaction norms for spring and autumn phenological events

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    For species to stay temporally tuned to their environment, they use cues such as the accumulation of degree-days. The relationships between the timing of a phenological event in a population and its environmental cue can be described by a population-level reaction norm. Variation in reaction norms along environmental gradients may either intensify the environmental effects on timing (cogradient variation) or attenuate the effects (countergradient variation). To resolve spatial and seasonal variation in species' response, we use a unique dataset of 91 taxa and 178 phenological events observed across a network of 472 monitoring sites, spread across the nations of the former Soviet Union. We show that compared to local rates of advancement of phenological events with the advancement of temperature-related cues (i.e., variation within site over years), spatial variation in reaction norms tend to accentuate responses in spring (cogradient variation) and attenuate them in autumn (countergradient variation). As a result, among-population variation in the timing of events is greater in spring and less in autumn than if all populations followed the same reaction norm regardless of location. Despite such signs of local adaptation, overall phenotypic plasticity was not sufficient for phenological events to keep exact pace with their cues-the earlier the year, the more did the timing of the phenological event lag behind the timing of the cue. Overall, these patterns suggest that differences in the spatial versus temporal reaction norms will affect species' response to climate change in opposite ways in spring and autumn

    Development of proton beam irradiation system for the NA65/DsTau experiment

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    Tau neutrino is the least studied lepton of the StandardModel (SM). The NA65/DsTau experiment targets to investigate Ds, the parent particle of the ντ, using the nuclearemulsion-based detector and to decrease the systematic uncertaintyof ντ flux prediction from over 50 % to 10 % for futurebeam dump experiments. In the experiment, the emulsion detectorsare exposed to the CERN SPS 400 GeV proton beam. To provideoptimal conditions for the reconstruction of interactions, theprotons are required to be uniformly distributed over the detector'ssurface with an average density of 105^{5} cm−2^{-2} and thefluctuation of less than 10%. To address this issue, we developeda new proton irradiation system called the target mover. The newtarget mover provided irradiation with a proton density of1.01 × 105^{5} cm−2^{-2} and the density fluctuation of1.9 ± 0.3% in the DsTau 2021 run.Tau neutrino is the least studied lepton of the Standard Model (SM). The NA65/DsTau experiment targets to investigate DsD_s, the parent particle of the ντ\nu_\tau, using the nuclear emulsion-based detector and to decrease the systematic uncertainty of ντ\nu_\tau flux prediction from over 50% to 10% for future beam dump experiments. In the experiment, the emulsion detectors are exposed to the CERN SPS 400 GeV proton beam. To provide optimal conditions for the reconstruction of interactions, the protons are required to be uniformly distributed over the detector's surface with an average density of 105 cm−210^5~\rm{cm^{-2}} and the fluctuation of less than 10%. To address this issue, we developed a new proton irradiation system called the target mover. The new target mover provided irradiation with a proton density of 0.98 cm−20.98~\rm{cm^{-2}} and the density fluctuation of 2.0±0.32.0\pm 0.3% in the DsTau 2021 run