990 research outputs found

    New Network Goods

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    New horizontally-differentiated goods involving product-specific network effects are quite prevalent. Consumers market-wide preference for each of these goods typically is initially unknown. Later, as sales data begin to accumulate, agents learn market-wide preferences, which thus become common knowledge. We study such a market, pinpointing the factors which determine whether the market-wide preferred firm reinforces its lead as time elapses, penetration and under-cost pricing prevail, and first- or last-mover effects in market-wide preferences occur.Network effects, horizontal differentiation

    Deductive Verification of Parallel Programs Using Why3

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    The Message Passing Interface specification (MPI) defines a portable message-passing API used to program parallel computers. MPI programs manifest a number of challenges on what concerns correctness: sent and expected values in communications may not match, resulting in incorrect computations possibly leading to crashes; and programs may deadlock resulting in wasted resources. Existing tools are not completely satisfactory: model-checking does not scale with the number of processes; testing techniques wastes resources and are highly dependent on the quality of the test set. As an alternative, we present a prototype for a type-based approach to programming and verifying MPI like programs against protocols. Protocols are written in a dependent type language designed so as to capture the most common primitives in MPI, incorporating, in addition, a form of primitive recursion and collective choice. Protocols are then translated into Why3, a deductive software verification tool. Source code, in turn, is written in WhyML, the language of the Why3 platform, and checked against the protocol. Programs that pass verification are guaranteed to be communication safe and free from deadlocks. We verified several parallel programs from textbooks using our approach, and report on the outcome.Comment: In Proceedings ICE 2015, arXiv:1508.0459

    The Outcomes of Entrepreneurship, Relational Capital and Innovativeness on Tourist Satisfaction

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    Addressing the needs of customers is fundamental to the success of companies, particularly in the long-term. In fact, most companies use customer satisfaction as a method to determine and evaluate their performance and outline their strategies for the future. Therefore, the main objective is to better understand entrepreneurship and new product development antecedents and implications on customer satisfaction, a key element for sustainable development. A model is proposed to assess the relationship between two antecedents of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and new product development (NPD) and a measure of performance. Based on a survey sample of 137 tourism SMEs, the model was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS). The results show that both the relational capital and innovativeness positively influence entrepreneurship and NPD. They also suggest a positive relationship between entrepreneurship and customer satisfaction. Although there is a positive impact of NPD on customer satisfaction, this relationship was not significant. In addition, the results indicate that relational capital and innovativeness positively influence customer satisfaction through entrepreneurship and NPD. Consequently, to improve the sustainable performance of tourism firms and to increase customer satisfaction, managers must invest in the development of entrepreneurship as well as in the development of new products and their antecedents.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Mapping the wine visit experience for tourist excitement and cultural experience

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    This study aims to examine and estimate the relationships between wine involvement, cultural experience, winescape attributes, wine excitement and sensorial attraction in two different wine tourism destinations and the antecedent role of wine involvement as the starting point that enhances the other dimensions. Survey data was analysed using structural equation modelling. Results reveal a direct relationship of wine involvement, winescape attributes, and sensorial attraction in the cultural experience and wine excitement of wine tourists. Furthermore, the mediating role of winescape attributes and sensorial attraction was identified in the relationship between wine involvement cultural experiences. These results allow wine marketeers and decision-makers to map the different stages in a wine tourism experience and to combine the use of these five different wine tourism dimensions to deliver a superior cultural experience.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Towards a framework for the global wine tourism system

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    Purpose – Wine tourism has stood out as a very recognized and valid tourism and marketing segment, growing worldwide and urging the complex needed advances on wine tourism practices performance. This paper aims to develop a new framework strictly applied to the global wine tourism system, taking into account emerging and future constructs and dimensions that precede and consequence it. Design/methodology/approach – The systematic mapping study (SMS) was adopted as the selected research methodological approach, both to analyze and to structure a broad research field concerning methods, designs and research, focuses on the papers published in reliable academic databases such as Emerald, ProQuest, Sage, Science Direct, Scopus, Wiley, Web of Science, Taylor and Francis and Wiley were properly selected and analyzed. Findings – The following four dimensions were found to comprise the global framework of the wine tourism system: (1) support features (governance, public policies and economic investment; supply development; physical and capacity conditions; requirements of health safety; opinion makers and leaders: managers/ stakeholders/players/marketers and benchmarking and value chain); (2) innovation ecosystem (profile of the new generations of wine tourists; virtual and augmented reality: digital and hybrid wine events; smart wine tourism companies; digital channels and platforms: blogs, websites, applications; wine tourism creative activities for all [from kids to seniors] and sustainable and ecologic wine tourism practices); (3) wine tourism experience dimensions (storytelling; involvement; winescape; attachment; emotions and sensory) and (4) behavioural intentions (satisfaction; loyalty; and WoM). Research limitations/implications – The framework still needs to be empirically applied in wine tourism settings to enrich tourists’ robustness in cross-cultural wine tourism experiences, covering a wider spread of abroad wine tourism destinations and products. Practical implications – This framework is a useful tool and becomes vital to their continued success, as a key reference of wine tourism management and marketing. As a wine tourist’s visitation frequency plays a role in his/her travel motives, product and service quality of tour packages must be improved and monitored. Originality/value – This is the first research study to demonstrate the combined use of the main domains forming the wine tourism system within a global perspective, covering of the most critical aspects.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Exploring the outcomes of digital marketing on historic sites' visitor behaviour

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    Purpose – Digital communication and social media have an increasing importance in society and in tourism boosting. This study aims to analyse the role of digital marketing in the destination image and visitor loyalty of historic sites. Design/methodology/approach – Using a mixed-method approach combining survey data from 318 respondents and three in-depth interviews. Using structural equations modelling results reveals experience, satisfaction, image and loyalty are concepts to be considered by the destinations’ digital marketing promotion, as well as the increasing use of digital marketing by tourists, in the sense that tourists are increasing the habit of checking the opinion of others before scheduling their trip and gives them more importance, and a growing importance is given by tourists to the web/social networks of places they intend to visit. Findings – This study contributes to the theory on tourism digital marketing which can be transposed to organizations management in order to encourage discussion on the processes of capture, retention and loyalty of target audiences. Research limitations/implications – To enhance the importance of digital marketing in the process of the tourist development of the city, it is fundamental to define a clear strategy for attracting and responding to the greatest demand from cultural tourists who are increasingly interested in actively participating in learning experiences. Practical implications – The results show that digital communication and social media have an increasing importance in society and in tourism boosting and economy recovery. Social implications – The paper presents digital marketing as a possible factor in tourism development and social inclusion, advancing practical measures aimed at social justice through a fairer distribution of tourism revenues and the defence of historic centre residents’ way (i.e. Barcelos’), and quality of life. Originality/value – The authors suggest the development of a strategic digital marketing plan applied to the development and promotion of tourism in the city of Barcelos (Portugal), to complement the research presented here, thus contributing with a more practical perspective of the subject under study.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Academic Tourism and Transport Services: Student Perceptions from a Social Responsibility Perspective

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    Firms aim at achieving their economic interests without neglecting the needs of local and regional communities and the environment itself. The process involves defining and implementing Social Responsibility strategies that leverage organizational competitiveness and sustainability. In this context, the current study purposes to demonstrate how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and a sustainable orientation influence the satisfaction and loyalty of academic tourists to the Metro of Porto (in Portugal). More specifically, our study aims to assess the satisfaction of academic tourists with the Metro of Porto and, additionally, to analyze the variables that determine the satisfaction and loyalty of these tourists to this specific transport company, which has never been achieved before. Our proposed research model seeks to determine how CSR and a sustainable orientation influence academic tourists’ loyalty to the Metro of Porto transport services as well as their link to Service Quality, Perceived Value, Corporate Image and Tourist Satisfaction. From a sample of 256 academic tourists, customers of the Metro of Porto, a quantitative analysis was carried out using the structural equation model (SEM-PLS). The results obtained allow us to conclude that CSR and Service Quality have an impact on academic tourists’ satisfaction and loyalty to the Metro of Porto. The development of a region is intrinsically linked to transport networks that promote the integration and growth of productive systems. Our results demonstrate the relationship between regional development and business sustainability strategies that integrate Social Responsibility practices. We show the importance that Social Responsibility policies have for companies as a precursor to customer satisfaction and loyalty to a company. Hence, as a guarantee of obtaining economic results, firms must simultaneously contribute to the sustainable development of territories.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Main challenges, trends and opportunities for wine tourism in Portugal

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    Purpose – This paper aims to define the boundaries of wine tourism to identify the main challenges, trends and opportunities of wine tourism in Portugal, providing some critical recommendations for those operating in this sector. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on a literature review and content analysis of prior and ongoing work. Findings – The main challenges, trends and opportunities for the wine tourism industry in Portugal are identified, as well as suggestions and practical recommendations/contributions for managers, stakeholders, players and marketers. The paper concludes with some key points that could form the basis of a strategic agenda for future action. Originality/value – Based on the reviewed literature, some benchmarks for the wine tourism industry in Portugal were developed.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Lisbon as a literary tourism site: Εssays of a digital map of Pessoa as a new trigger

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    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential of literary tourism in Portugal and explore the advantages of creating a digital literary map about the places associated with the widely renowned Portuguese author Fernando Pessoa (hereafter Pessoa), as well as the places that he suggests in one of his works, a tourist guide of Lisbon: What the Tourist Should See (1925). Methods: Firstly, a study of the state of art of the key concepts was made in order to apply them in the second part, the methodology, in the case of studying Lisbon from Pessoa's perspective. Then, allying personal taste for the writer/author with interest in cultural promotion gave rise to a digital literary map of Pessoa’s Lisbon. Methodologically, a questionnaire was applied covering a sample of 173 valid literary tourists. Results: literary tourism should be an object of in-depth studies, as it tends to be beneficial for cultural promotion of tourist destinations and products, specifically for literary tourists. Further limitations, implications and future suggestions of this study are provided. Implications: This paper is the first to empirically test literary tourism, proposing a digital literary tourism map. Regarding the main findings, there is high interest from literary tourists in exploring the literary places associated with Pessoa, physically or digitally.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Ethical Marketing Model for Luxury Hotel Chains: Development and Validation of a Performance Evaluation Tool

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    The aim of this study is to develop a new performance evaluation tool that is stringently applied to the hotel chains, considering the associated ethical marketing dimensions to measure its proper strategic, tactical, and operational role and impact within hospitality marketing management plans, campaigns, and strategies implemented. A Delphi technique was conducted as the selected research qualitative method, comprising three rounds. A total of 23 panel participants, such as directors and managers of marketing, e-commerce, sales, and branding, completed all three rounds. Two major areas of ethical marketing, internal and external, both divided into five dimensions, each with underlying items, were found to comprise the ethical marketing model for luxury hotel chains: (1) internal area of marketing (with five dimensions: integration, training, equal opportunities, performance evaluation, and smart policies) and (2) external area of marketing (with five dimensions: stakeholders, booking platforms and CRM, marketing plan, digital marketing campaigns, and social media platforms). The study concludes with useful insights and remarks. The generalisability of the results may be limited owning to the partial or not full applicability across all luxury hotel chains. The model still needs to be empirically applied in luxury hotel chains to enrich its robustness, covering a wider spread of four- and five-star luxury hotels. There is a growing potential for researchers, hotel decision makers, and marketing and sales managers and directors to achieve many advantages and benefits from the proposed model, supporting the efforts for ethical marketing theory and practice, such as hotel brand positioning strategies and formulation of more targeted and finely tuned ethical marketing strategies, tactics, and plans. This is the first study to develop and validate a performance evaluation tool of ethical marketing for luxury hotel chains. This pioneering approach extends the scope into ethical marketing because this model has never been used in this area.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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