684 research outputs found

    One-2-3-45: Any Single Image to 3D Mesh in 45 Seconds without Per-Shape Optimization

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    Single image 3D reconstruction is an important but challenging task that requires extensive knowledge of our natural world. Many existing methods solve this problem by optimizing a neural radiance field under the guidance of 2D diffusion models but suffer from lengthy optimization time, 3D inconsistency results, and poor geometry. In this work, we propose a novel method that takes a single image of any object as input and generates a full 360-degree 3D textured mesh in a single feed-forward pass. Given a single image, we first use a view-conditioned 2D diffusion model, Zero123, to generate multi-view images for the input view, and then aim to lift them up to 3D space. Since traditional reconstruction methods struggle with inconsistent multi-view predictions, we build our 3D reconstruction module upon an SDF-based generalizable neural surface reconstruction method and propose several critical training strategies to enable the reconstruction of 360-degree meshes. Without costly optimizations, our method reconstructs 3D shapes in significantly less time than existing methods. Moreover, our method favors better geometry, generates more 3D consistent results, and adheres more closely to the input image. We evaluate our approach on both synthetic data and in-the-wild images and demonstrate its superiority in terms of both mesh quality and runtime. In addition, our approach can seamlessly support the text-to-3D task by integrating with off-the-shelf text-to-image diffusion models.Comment: project website: one-2-3-45.co

    TMEM258 Is a Component of the Oligosaccharyltransferase Complex Controlling ER Stress and Intestinal Inflammation

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    Summary - Significant insights into disease pathogenesis have been gleaned from population-level genetic studies; however, many loci associated with complex genetic disease contain numerous genes, and phenotypic associations cannot be assigned unequivocally. In particular, a gene-dense locus on chromosome 11 (61.5–61.65 Mb) has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and coronary artery disease. Here, we identify TMEM258 within this locus as a central regulator of intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, Tmem258 haploinsufficient mice exhibit severe intestinal inflammation in a model of colitis. At the mechanistic level, we demonstrate that TMEM258 is a required component of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex and is essential for N-linked protein glycosylation. Consequently, homozygous deficiency of Tmem258 in colonic organoids results in unresolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress culminating in apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TMEM258 is a central mediator of ER quality control and intestinal homeostasis.Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust (2014PG-IBD016)Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of AmericaNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (grant DK043351)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (grant DK097485

    Succinate Dehydrogenase Supports Metabolic Repurposing of Mitochondria to Drive Inflammatory Macrophages.

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    Activated macrophages undergo metabolic reprogramming, which drives their pro-inflammatory phenotype, but the mechanistic basis for this remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages shift from producing ATP by oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis while also increasing succinate levels. We show that increased mitochondrial oxidation of succinate via succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and an elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential combine to drive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. RNA sequencing reveals that this combination induces a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile, while an inhibitor of succinate oxidation, dimethyl malonate (DMM), promotes an anti-inflammatory outcome. Blocking ROS production with rotenone by uncoupling mitochondria or by expressing the alternative oxidase (AOX) inhibits this inflammatory phenotype, with AOX protecting mice from LPS lethality. The metabolic alterations that occur upon activation of macrophages therefore repurpose mitochondria from ATP synthesis to ROS production in order to promote a pro-inflammatory state

    Search for third-generation scalar leptoquarks in the tτ channel in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    A search for pair production of third-generation scalar leptoquarks decaying to top quark and τ lepton pairs is presented using proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 8 TeV collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb[superscript −1]. The search is performed using events that contain an electron or a muon, a hadronically decaying τ lepton, and two or more jets. The observations are found to be consistent with the standard model predictions. Assuming that all leptoquarks decay to a top quark and a τ lepton, the existence of pair produced, charge −1/3, third-generation leptoquarks up to a mass of 685 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level. This result constitutes the first direct limit for leptoquarks decaying into a top quark and a τ lepton, and may also be applied directly to the pair production of bottom squarks decaying predominantly via the R-parity violating coupling λ [subscript 333] â€Č.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Measurement of the transverse momentum spectrum of the Higgs boson produced in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV using H → WW decays

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    The cross section for Higgs boson production in pp collisions is studied using the H → W[superscript +]W[superscript −] decay mode, followed by leptonic decays of the W bosons to an oppositely charged electron-muon pair in the final state. The measurements are performed using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb[superscript −1]. The Higgs boson transverse momentum (p[subscript T]) is reconstructed using the lepton pair p[subscript T] and missing p[subscript T]. The differential cross section times branching fraction is measured as a function of the Higgs boson pTin a fiducial phase space defined to match the experimental acceptance in terms of the lepton kinematics and event topology. The production cross section times branching fraction in the fiducial phase space is measured to be 39 ± 8 (stat) ± 9 (syst) fb. The measurements are found to agree, within experimental uncertainties, with theoretical calculations based on the standard model. Keywords: Hadron-Hadron scattering (experiments), Higgs physicsNational Science Foundation (U.S.)United States. Department of Energ

    First narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves from known pulsars in advanced detector data

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    Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signalto- noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, narrow-band analysis methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of 11 pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO’s first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched; in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far

    Management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection:WHO guidelines for low tuberculosis burden countries

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    ABSTRACT Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is characterised by the presence of immune responses to previously acquired Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without clinical evidence of active tuberculosis (TB). Here we report evidence-based guidelines from the World Health Organization for a public health approach to the management of LTBI in high risk individuals in countries with high or middle upper income and TB incidence of <100 per 100000 per year. The guidelines strongly recommend systematic testing and treatment of LTBI in people living with HIV, adult and child contacts of pulmonary TB cases, patients initiating anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, patients receiving dialysis, patients preparing for organ or haematological transplantation, and patients with silicosis. In prisoners, healthcare workers, immigrants from high TB burden countries, homeless persons and illicit drug users, systematic testing an

    Reporting trends, practices, and resource utilization in neuroendocrine tumors of the prostate gland: a survey among thirty-nine genitourinary pathologists

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    Background: Neuroendocrine differentiation in the prostate gland ranges from clinically insignificant neuroendocrine differentiation detected with markers in an otherwise conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma to a lethal high-grade small/large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The concept of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma has gained considerable importance due to its prognostic and therapeutic ramifications and pathologists play a pivotal role in its recognition. However, its awareness, reporting, and resource utilization practice patterns among pathologists are largely unknown. Methods: Representative examples of different spectrums of neuroendocrine differentiation along with a detailed questionnaire were shared among 39 urologic pathologists using the survey monkey software. Participants were specifically questioned about the use and awareness of the 2016 WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors of the prostate, understanding of the clinical significance of each entity, and use of different immunohistochemical (IHC) markers. De-identified respondent data were analyzed. Results: A vast majority (90%) of the participants utilize IHC markers to confirm the diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. A majority (87%) of the respondents were in agreement regarding the utilization of type of IHC markers for small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma for which 85% of the pathologists agreed that determination of the site of origin of a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma is not critical, as these are treated similarly. In the setting of mixed carcinomas, 62% of respondents indicated that they provide quantification and grading of the acinar component. There were varied responses regarding the prognostic implication of focal neuroendocrine cells in an otherwise conventional acinar adenocarcinoma and for Paneth cell-like differentiation. The classification of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was highly varied, with only 38% agreement in the illustrated case. Finally, despite the recommendation not to perform neuroendocrine markers in the absence of morphologic evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation, 62% would routinely utilize IHC in the work-up of a Gleason score 5 + 5 = 10 acinar adenocarcinoma and its differentiation from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. Conclusion: There is a disparity in the practice utilization patterns among the urologic pathologists with regard to diagnosing high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma and in understanding the clinical significance of focal neuroendocrine cells in an otherwise conventional acinar adenocarcinoma and Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation. There seems to have a trend towards overutilization of IHC to determine neuroendocrine differentiation in the absence of neuroendocrine features on morphology. The survey results suggest a need for further refinement and development of standardized guidelines for the classification and reporting of neuroendocrine differentiation in the prostate gland
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