44 research outputs found

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Muon momentum measurement in ICARUS-T600 LAr-TPC via multiple scattering in few-GeV range

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    The measurement of muon momentum by Multiple Coulomb Scattering is a crucial ingredient to the reconstruction of ΜΌ CC events in the ICARUS-T600 liquid argon TPC in absence of magnetic field, as in the search for sterile neutrinos at Fermilab where ICARUS will be exposed to ∌ 1 GeV Booster neutrino beam. A sample of ∌ 1000 stopping muons produced by charged current interactions of CNGS ΜΌ in the surrounding rock at the INFN Gran Sasso underground Laboratory provides an ideal benchmark in the few-GeV range since their momentum can be directly and independently obtained by the calorimetric measurement. Stopping muon momentum in the 0.5-4.5 GeV/c range has been reconstructed via Multiple Coulomb Scattering with resolution ranging from 10 to 25% depending on muon energy, track length and uniformity of the electric field in the drift volume

    Heart Rate Variability During a Joint Attention Task in Toddlers With Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Background: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders featuring early impairments in social domain, with autonomic nervous system (ANS) unbalance possibly representing a useful marker for such disturbances. Impairments in joint attention (JA) are one of the earliest markers of social deficits in ASD. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using wearable technologies for characterizing the ANS response in ASD toddlers during the presentation of JA stimuli. Methods: Twenty ASD toddlers and 20 age- and gender-matched typically developed (TD) children were recorded at baseline and during a JA task through an unobtrusive chest strap for electrocardiography (ECG). Specific algorithms for feature extraction, including Heart Rate (HR), Standard Deviation of the Normal-to-Normal Intervals (SDNN), Coefficient of Variation (CV), pNN10 as well as low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF), were applied to the ECG signal and a statistical comparison between the two groups was performed. Results: As regards the single phases, SDNN (p = 0.04) and CV (p = 0.021) were increased in ASD at baseline together with increased LF absolute power (p = 0.034). Moreover, CV remained higher in ASD during the task (p = 0.03). Considering the phase and group interaction, LF increased from baseline to task in TD group (p = 0.04) while it decreased in the ASD group (p = 0.04). Conclusions: The results of this study indicate the feasibility of characterizing the ANS response in ASD toddlers through a minimally obtrusive tool. Our analysis showed an increased SDNN and CV in toddlers with ASD particularly at baseline compared to TD and lower LF during the task. These findings could suggest the possibility of using the proposed approach for evaluating physiological correlates of JA response in young children with ASD

    Scintillation Light DAQ and Trigger System for the ICARUS T600 Experiment at Fermilab

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    ICARUS T600 will operate at shallow depths as far detector for the Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program at FNAL taking data from the BNB and NuMI beams. The entire apparatus will be exposed to the huge cosmic background which can mimic genuine neutrino interactions. To distinguish the signals related to the neutrino beams from those induced by cosmic rays, the detector will be provided with a trigger system that will exploit the coincidence of the prompt signals from the liquid argon scintillation light, detected by 360 Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs), with a beam gate window generated in correspondence to the expected arrival time of neutrinos in the T600

    Precise 3D track reconstruction algorithm for the ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber detector.

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    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach of three-dimensional reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of real data tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam

    Experimental search for the LSND anomaly with the ICARUS LAr TPC detector in the CNGS beam

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    A search for a nu_e signal, due to a LSND anomaly, with ICARUS at LNGS exposed at the CNGS neutrino beam, is hereby presented. At a distance of 730 km and with the 0-30 GeV energy interval, such anomaly is characterised by fast energy oscillations with probability averaging to 0.5*sin^2(2 theta_new). This is compared with the small but significant backgrounds due to conventional neutrino sources. The ionization along the early part of e.m. showers, has been examined wire by wire to tag the presence of an electron emitted from the vertex of the neutrino event. This is powerful eliminator of gamma converting pairs, which are generally separated from the vertex and are double minimum ionizing. In order to simulate the LSND anomaly, Montecarlo nu_e events have been generated with the nu_mu energy spectrum. These events have been used to estimate the electron identification efficiency due to visibility cuts, found to be ~74%. The present ICARUS experimental sample is based on 1091 neutrino events, about 50% of the data collected up to now. Two events with a clear electron have been found, compared with the expectation of 3.7 events from conventional sources. Within the range of observations, the result is compatible with the absence of LSND anomaly. At 90 and 99% CL this corresponds to 3.41 and 7.13 events with oscillation probabilities 5.4 10^-3 and 1.1 x 10^-2 respectively. This result strongly limits the window for the LSND anomaly, reducing to a narrow region around Dm2=0.5 eV2 and sin^2(2 theta)=0.05, where there is an overall agreement (90 % CL) between the ICARUS limit, the published limit of KARMEN and the published positive signals of LSND and MiniBooNE collaborations. To complete the search of an LSND-like anomaly, especially in the surviving region, we intend to move the ICARUS detector to a much closer distance and to collect new data from a lower energy neutrino

    Precise 3D Track Reconstruction Algorithm for the ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detector

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    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach to 3D reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to the track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of stopping particle tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam
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