1,570 research outputs found

    The sax1 dwarf mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana shows altered sensitivity of growth responses to abscisic acid, auxin, giberellin and ethylene and is partially rescued by exogenous brassinosteroid

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    Genetic approaches using Arabidopsis thaliana aimed at the identification of mutations affecting events involved in auxin signalling have usually led to the isolation of auxin-resistant mutants. From a selection screen specifically developed to isolate auxin-hypersensitive mutants, one mutant line was selected for its increased sensitivity to auxin (x 2 to 3) for the root elongation response. The genetic analysis of sax1 (hypersensitive to abscisic acid and auxin) indicated that the mutant phenotype segregates as a single recessive Mendelian locus, mapping to the lower arm of chromosome 1. Sax1 seedlings grown in vitro showed a short curled primary root and small, round, dark-green cotyledons. In the greenhouse, adult sax1 plants were characterized by a dwarf phenotype, delayed development and reduced fertility. Further physiological characterization of sax1 seedlings revealed that the most striking trait was a large increase (x 40) in ABA-sensitivity of root elongation and, to a lesser extent, of ABA-induced stomatal closure; in other respects, hypocotyl elongation was resistant to gibberellins and ethylene. These alterations in hormone sensitivity in sax1 plants co-segregated with the dwarf phenotype suggesting that processes involved in cell elongation are modified. Treatment of mutant seedlings with an exogenous brassinosteroid partially rescued a wild-type size, suggesting that brassinosteroid biosynthesis might be affected in sax1 plants. Wild-type sensitivities to ABA, auxin and gibberellins were also restored in sax1 plants by exogenous application of brassinosteroid, illustrating the pivotal importance of the BR-related SAX1 gene

    Push-push X band GaInP/GaAs VCO with a fully monolithic microstrip resonator

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    In this paper the design of a VCO using GaInP/GaAs HBT technology is presented. The VCO is designed to be a part of a PDH point to point radio system. To achieve low phase noise performances GaInP/GaAs HBT technology and push-push topology have been chosen. The MMIC includes predistorters to emphasize the second harmonic, f/sub 0//2 prescalers for PLL locking and buffer amplifiers. A fully monolithic microstrip resonator is coupled with integrated varactors to achieve the specified tuning bandwidth. Phase noise, bandwidth and power measurements will also be presente

    Electrophysiology of glioma: a Rho GTPase-activating protein reduces tumor growth and spares neuron structure and function

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    Background. Glioblastomas are the most aggressive type of brain tumor. A successful treatment should aim at halting tumor growth and protecting neuronal cells to prevent functional deficits and cognitive deterioration. Here, we exploited a Rho GTPase-activating bacterial protein toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), to interfere with glioma cell growth in vitro and vivo. We also investigated whether this toxin spares neuron structure and function in peritumoral areas. Methods. We performed a microarray transcriptomic and in-depth proteomic analysis to characterize the molecular changes triggered by CNF1 in glioma cells. We also examined tumor cell senescence and growth in vehicle-and CNF1-treated glioma-bearing mice. Electrophysiological and morphological techniques were used to investigate neuronal alterations in peritumoral cortical areas. Results. Administration of CNF1 triggered molecular and morphological hallmarks of senescence in mouse and human glioma cells in vitro. CNF1 treatment in vivo induced glioma cell senescence and potently reduced tumor volumes. In peritumoral areas of glioma-bearing mice, neurons showed a shrunken dendritic arbor and severe functional alterations such as increased spontaneous activity and reduced visual responsiveness. CNF1 treatment enhanced dendritic length and improved several physiological properties of pyramidal neurons, demonstrating functional preservation of the cortical network. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that CNF1 reduces glioma volume while at the same time maintaining the physiological and structural properties of peritumoral neurons. These data indicate a promising strategy for the development of more effective antiglioma therapies
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