13 research outputs found

    Therapeutic CFTR correction normalizes systemic and lung-specific S1P level alterations associated with heart failure

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    Heart failure (HF) is among the main causes of death worldwide. Alterations of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling have been linked to HF as well as to target organ damage that is often associated with HF. S1P’s availability is controlled by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which acts as a critical bottleneck for intracellular S1P degradation. HF induces CFTR downregulation in cells, tissues and organs, including the lung. Whether CFTR alterations during HF also affect systemic and tissue-specific S1P concentrations has not been investigated. Here, we set out to study the relationship between S1P and CFTR expression in the HF lung. Mice with HF, induced by myocardial infarction, were treated with the CFTR corrector compound C18 starting ten weeks post-myocardial infarction for two consecutive weeks. CFTR expression, S1P concentrations, and immune cell frequencies were determined in vehicle- and C18-treated HF mice and sham controls using Western blotting, flow cytometry, mass spectrometry, and qPCR. HF led to decreased pulmonary CFTR expression, which was accompanied by elevated S1P concentrations and a pro-inflammatory state in the lungs. Systemically, HF associated with higher S1P plasma levels compared to sham-operated controls and presented with higher S1P receptor 1-positive immune cells in the spleen. CFTR correction with C18 attenuated the HF-associated alterations in pulmonary CFTR expression and, hence, led to lower pulmonary S1P levels, which was accompanied by reduced lung inflammation. Collectively, these data suggest an important role for the CFTR-S1P axis in HF-mediated systemic and pulmonary inflammation

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator correction attenuates heart failure-induced lung inflammation

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    Heart failure (HF) affects 64 million people worldwide. Despite advancements in prevention and therapy, quality of life remains poor for many HF patients due to associated target organ damage. Pulmonary manifestations of HF are well-established. However, difficulties in the treatment of HF patients with chronic lung phenotypes remain as the underlying patho-mechanistic links are still incompletely understood. Here, we aim to investigate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) involvement in lung inflammation during HF, a concept that may provide new mechanism-based therapies for HF patients with pulmonary complications. In a mouse model of HF, pharmacological CFTR corrector therapy (Lumacaftor (Lum)) was applied systemically or lung-specifically for 2 weeks, and the lungs were analyzed using histology, flow cytometry, western blotting, and qPCR. Experimental HF associated with an apparent lung phenotype characterized by vascular inflammation and remodeling, pronounced tissue inflammation as evidenced by infiltration of pro-inflammatory monocytes, and a reduction of pulmonary CFTR+ cells. Moreover, the elevation of a classically-activated phenotype of non-alveolar macrophages coincided with a cell-specific reduction of CFTR expression. Pharmacological correction of CFTR with Lum mitigated the HF-induced downregulation of pulmonary CFTR expression and increased the proportion of CFTR+ cells in the lung. Lum treatment diminished the HF-associated elevation of classically-activated non-alveolar macrophages, while promoting an alternatively-activated macrophage phenotype within the lungs. Collectively, our data suggest that downregulation of CFTR in the HF lung extends to non-alveolar macrophages with consequences for tissue inflammation and vascular structure. Pharmacological CFTR correction possesses the capacity to alleviate HF-associated lung inflammation

    Simvastatin therapy attenuates memory deficits that associate with brain monocyte infiltration in chronic hypercholesterolemia

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    Abstract Evidence associates cardiovascular risk factors with unfavorable systemic and neuro-inflammation and cognitive decline in the elderly. Cardiovascular therapeutics (e.g., statins and anti-hypertensives) possess immune-modulatory functions in parallel to their cholesterol- or blood pressure (BP)-lowering properties. How their ability to modify immune responses affects cognitive function is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of chronic hypercholesterolemia on inflammation and memory function in Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice and normocholesterolemic wild-type mice. Chronic hypercholesterolemia that was accompanied by moderate blood pressure elevations associated with apparent immune system activation characterized by increases in circulating pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes in ApoE-/- mice. The persistent low-grade immune activation that is associated with chronic hypercholesterolemia facilitates the infiltration of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes into the brain of aged ApoE-/- but not wild-type mice, and links to memory dysfunction. Therapeutic cholesterol-lowering through simvastatin reduced systemic and neuro-inflammation, and the occurrence of memory deficits in aged ApoE-/- mice with chronic hypercholesterolemia. BP-lowering therapy alone (i.e., hydralazine) attenuated some neuro-inflammatory signatures but not the occurrence of memory deficits. Our study suggests a link between chronic hypercholesterolemia, myeloid cell activation and neuro-inflammation with memory impairment and encourages cholesterol-lowering therapy as safe strategy to control hypercholesterolemia-associated memory decline during ageing

    Alterations to cerebral perfusion, metabolite profiles, and neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and cortex of male and female mice during chronic exposure to a high-salt diet

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    Excess dietary salt reduces resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular reactivity, which can limit the fueling of neuronal metabolism. It is hitherto unknown whether metabolic derangements induced by high-salt-diet (HSD) exposure during adulthood are reversed by reducing salt intake. In this study, male and female mice were fed an HSD from 9 to 16 months of age, followed by a normal-salt diet (ND) thereafter until 23 months of age. Controls were continuously fed either ND or HSD. CBF and metabolite profiles were determined longitudinally by arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. HSD reduced cortical and hippocampal CBF, which recovered after dietary salt normalization, and affected hippocampal but not cortical metabolite profiles. Compared to ND, HSD increased hippocampal glutamine and phosphocreatine levels and decreased creatine and choline levels. Dietary reversal only allowed recovery of glutamine levels. Histology analyses revealed that HSD reduced the dendritic arborization and spine density of cortical and hippocampal neurons, which were not recovered after dietary salt normalization. We conclude that sustained HSD exposure throughout adulthood causes permanent structural and metabolic alterations to the mouse brain that are not fully normalized by lowering dietary salt during aging

    T-Cell Accumulation in the Hypertensive Brain: A Role for Sphingosine-1-Phosphate-Mediated Chemotaxis.

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    Hypertension is considered the major modifiable risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment. Because increased blood pressure is often accompanied by an activation of the immune system, the concept of neuro-inflammation gained increasing attention in the field of hypertension-associated neurodegeneration. Particularly, hypertension-associated elevated circulating T-lymphocyte populations and target organ damage spurred the interest to understanding mechanisms leading to inflammation-associated brain damage during hypertension. The present study describes sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) as major contributor to T-cell chemotaxis to the brain during hypertension-associated neuro-inflammation and cognitive impairment. Using Western blotting, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry approaches, we show that hypertension stimulates a sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)-dependent increase of cerebral S1P concentrations in a mouse model of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension. The development of a distinct S1P gradient between circulating blood and brain tissue associates to elevated CD3+ T-cell numbers in the brain. Inhibition of S1P1-guided T-cell chemotaxis with the S1P receptor modulator FTY720 protects from augmentation of brain CD3 expression and the development of memory deficits in hypertensive WT mice. In conclusion, our data highlight a new approach to the understanding of hypertension-associated inflammation in degenerative processes of the brain during disease progression

    Improving cerebrovascular function to increase neuronal recovery in neurodegeneration associated to cardiovascular disease

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    Mounting evidence indicates that the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors elevates the incidence of cognitive impairment (CI) and dementia. CVD and associated decline in cardiovascular function can impair cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, leading to the disruption of oxygen and nutrient supply in the brain where limited intracellular energy storage capacity critically depends on CBF to sustain proper neuronal functioning. During hypertension and acute as well as chronic CVD, cerebral hypoperfusion and impaired cerebrovascular function are often associated with neurodegeneration and can lead to CI and dementia. Currently, all forms of neurodegeneration associated to CVD lack effective treatments, which highlights the need to better understand specific mechanisms linking cerebrovascular dysfunction and CBF deficits to neurodegeneration. In this review, we discuss vascular targets that have already shown attenuation of neurodegeneration or CI associated to hypertension, heart failure (HF) and stroke by improving cerebrovascular function or CBF deficits