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    A decade of monitoring Atlantic cod Gadus morhua spawning aggregations in Massachusetts Bay using passive acoustics

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    ¬© The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Caiger, P. E., Dean, M. J., DeAngelis, A. I., Hatch, L. T., Rice, A. N., Stanley, J. A., Tholke, C., Zemeckis, D. R., & Van Parijs, S. M. A decade of monitoring Atlantic cod Gadus morhua spawning aggregations in Massachusetts Bay using passive acoustics. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 635, (2020): 89-103, doi:10.3354/meps13219.Atlantic cod Gadus morhua populations in the northeast USA have failed to recover since major declines in the 1970s and 1990s. To rebuild these stocks, managers need reliable information on spawning dynamics in order to design and implement control measures; discovering cost-effective and non-invasive monitoring techniques is also favorable. Atlantic cod form dense, site-fidelic spawning aggregations during which they vocalize, permitting acoustic detection of their presence at such times. The objective of this study was to detect spawning activity of Atlantic cod using multiple fixed-station passive acoustic recorders to sample across Massachusetts Bay during the winter spawning period. A generalized linear modeling approach was used to investigate spatio-temporal trends of cod vocalizing over 10 consecutive winter spawning seasons (2007-2016), the longest such timeline of any passive acoustic monitoring of a fish species. The vocal activity of Atlantic cod was associated with diel, lunar, and seasonal cycles, with a higher probability of occurrence at night, during the full moon, and near the end of November. Following 2009 and 2010, there was a general decline in acoustic activity. Furthermore, the northwest corner of Stellwagen Bank was identified as an important spawning location. This project demonstrated the utility of passive acoustic monitoring in determining the presence of an acoustically active fish species, and provides valuable data for informing the management of this commercially, culturally, and ecologically important species.Thanks to Eli Bonnell, Genevieve Davis, Julianne Bonell, Samara Haver, and Eric Matzen for assistance in MARU deployments, Dana Gerlach and Heather Heenehan for help in passive acoustic data analysis, and the NEFSC passive acoustics group for useful discussions. Funding for 2007‚ąí2012 passive acoustic surveys was provided by Excelerate Energy and Neptune LNG to Cornell University. Fieldwork for 2013‚ąí2015 was funded through the 2013‚ąí2014 NOAA Saltonstall-Kennedy grant program (Award No. NA14NMF4270027), and jointly funded by The Nature Conservancy, Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, and the Cabot Family Charitable Foundation. Funding for 2016 SoundTrap data was provided by NOAA‚Äôs Ocean Acoustics Program (4 Sanctuaries Project)

    The ethical challenge of Touraine's 'living together'

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    In Can We Live Together? Alain Touraine combines a consummate analysis of crucial social tensions in contemporary societies with a strong normative appeal for a new emancipatory 'Subject' capable of overcoming the twin threats of atomisation or authoritarianism. He calls for a move from 'politics to ethics' and then from ethics back to politics to enable the new Subject to make a reality out of the goals of democracy and solidarity. However, he has little to say about the nature of such an ethics. This article argues that this lacuna could usefully be filled by adopting a form of radical humanism found in the work of Erich Fromm. It defies convention in the social sciences by operating from an explicit view of the 'is' and the 'ought' of common human nature, specifying reason, love and productive work as the qualities to be realised if we are to move closer to human solidarity. Although there remain significant philosophical and political differences between the two positions, particularly on the role to be played by 'the nation', their juxtaposition opens new lines of inquiry in the field of cosmopolitan ethics
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