407 research outputs found

    Search for particles with anomalous charge in the IceCube detector

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    Differential limit on the extremely-high-energy cosmic neutrino flux in the presence of astrophysical background from nine years of IceCube data

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    We report a quasi-differential upper limit on the extremely-high-energy (EHE) neutrino flux above 5×1065\times 10^{6} GeV based on an analysis of nine years of IceCube data. The astrophysical neutrino flux measured by IceCube extends to PeV energies, and it is a background flux when searching for an independent signal flux at higher energies, such as the cosmogenic neutrino signal. We have developed a new method to place robust limits on the EHE neutrino flux in the presence of an astrophysical background, whose spectrum has yet to be understood with high precision at PeV energies. A distinct event with a deposited energy above 10610^{6} GeV was found in the new two-year sample, in addition to the one event previously found in the seven-year EHE neutrino search. These two events represent a neutrino flux that is incompatible with predictions for a cosmogenic neutrino flux and are considered to be an astrophysical background in the current study. The obtained limit is the most stringent to date in the energy range between 5×1065 \times 10^{6} and 5×10105 \times 10^{10} GeV. This result constrains neutrino models predicting a three-flavor neutrino flux of $E_\nu^2\phi_{\nu_e+\nu_\mu+\nu_\tau}\simeq2\times 10^{-8}\ {\rm GeV}/{\rm cm}^2\ \sec\ {\rm sr}at at 10^9\ {\rm GeV}$. A significant part of the parameter-space for EHE neutrino production scenarios assuming a proton-dominated composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is excluded.Comment: The version accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Decelerating Spread of West Nile Virus by Percolation in a Heterogeneous Urban Landscape

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    Vector-borne diseases are emerging and re-emerging in urban environments throughout the world, presenting an increasing challenge to human health and a major obstacle to development. Currently, more than half of the global population is concentrated in urban environments, which are highly heterogeneous in the extent, degree, and distribution of environmental modifications. Because the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens is so closely coupled to the ecologies of vector and host species, this heterogeneity has the potential to significantly alter the dynamical systems through which pathogens propagate, and also thereby affect the epidemiological patterns of disease at multiple spatial scales. One such pattern is the speed of spread. Whereas standard models hold that pathogens spread as waves with constant or increasing speed, we hypothesized that heterogeneity in urban environments would cause decelerating travelling waves in incipient epidemics. To test this hypothesis, we analysed data on the spread of West Nile virus (WNV) in New York City (NYC), the 1999 epicentre of the North American pandemic, during annual epizootics from 2000–2008. These data show evidence of deceleration in all years studied, consistent with our hypothesis. To further explain these patterns, we developed a spatial model for vector-borne disease transmission in a heterogeneous environment. An emergent property of this model is that deceleration occurs only in the vicinity of a critical point. Geostatistical analysis suggests that NYC may be on the edge of this criticality. Together, these analyses provide the first evidence for the endogenous generation of decelerating travelling waves in an emerging infectious disease. Since the reported deceleration results from the heterogeneity of the environment through which the pathogen percolates, our findings suggest that targeting control at key sites could efficiently prevent pathogen spread to remote susceptible areas or even halt epidemics

    Measurement of differential cross sections for top quark pair production using the lepton plus jets final state in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV

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    National Science Foundation (U.S.

    Particle-flow reconstruction and global event description with the CMS detector

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    The CMS apparatus was identified, a few years before the start of the LHC operation at CERN, to feature properties well suited to particle-flow (PF) reconstruction: a highly-segmented tracker, a fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter, a hermetic hadron calorimeter, a strong magnetic field, and an excellent muon spectrometer. A fully-fledged PF reconstruction algorithm tuned to the CMS detector was therefore developed and has been consistently used in physics analyses for the first time at a hadron collider. For each collision, the comprehensive list of final-state particles identified and reconstructed by the algorithm provides a global event description that leads to unprecedented CMS performance for jet and hadronic tau decay reconstruction, missing transverse momentum determination, and electron and muon identification. This approach also allows particles from pileup interactions to be identified and enables efficient pileup mitigation methods. The data collected by CMS at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV show excellent agreement with the simulation and confirm the superior PF performance at least up to an average of 20 pileup interactions

    Investigation of two Fermi-LAT gamma-ray blazars coincident with high-energy neutrinos detected by IceCube

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    After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multi-wavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible (≀2σ\leq 2\sigma) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multi-wavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.Comment: 22 pages, 11 figures, 2 Table

    Joint Constraints on Galactic Diffuse Neutrino Emission from the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

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    [EN] The existence of diffuse Galactic neutrino production is expected from cosmic-ray interactions with Galactic gas and radiation Âżelds. Thus, neutrinos are a unique messenger offering the opportunity to test the products of Galactic cosmic-ray interactions up to energies of hundreds of TeV. Here we present a search for this production using ten years of Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch (ANTARES) track and shower data, as well as seven years of IceCube track data. The data are combined into a joint likelihood test for neutrino emission according to the KRAg model assuming a 5 PeV per nucleon Galactic cosmic-ray cutoff. No signiÂżcant excess is found. As a consequence, the limits presented in this Letter start constraining the model parameter space for Galactic cosmic-ray production and transport.Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Ardid RamĂ­rez, M.; Aubert, J-.; Aublin, J.; Avgitas, T.... (2018). Joint Constraints on Galactic Diffuse Neutrino Emission from the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes. The Astrophysical Journal. 868(2):1-7. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaeecfS178682Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., 
 Anderson, T. (2017). Search for Astrophysical Sources of Neutrinos Using Cascade Events in IceCube. The Astrophysical Journal, 846(2), 136. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa8508Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., 
 Archinger, M. (2015). A COMBINED MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS OF THE HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICAL NEUTRINO FLUX MEASURED WITH ICECUBE. The Astrophysical Journal, 809(1), 98. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/809/1/98Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., 
 Anderson, T. (2017). All-sky Search for Time-integrated Neutrino Emission from Astrophysical Sources with 7 yr of IceCube Data. The Astrophysical Journal, 835(2), 151. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/151Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., 
 Anderson, T. (2017). Constraints on Galactic Neutrino Emission with Seven Years of IceCube Data. The Astrophysical Journal, 849(1), 67. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa8dfbAartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., 
 Ansseau, I. (2017). The IceCube Neutrino Observatory: instrumentation and online systems. Journal of Instrumentation, 12(03), P03012-P03012. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/03/p03012Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., 
 Berenji, B. (2012). FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE Îł-RAY EMISSION: IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMIC RAYS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. The Astrophysical Journal, 750(1), 3. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/750/1/3AdriĂĄn-MartĂ­nez, S., Ageron, M., Aguilar, J. A., Samarai, I. A., Albert, A., AndrĂ©, M., 
 Ardid, M. (2012). The positioning system of the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope. Journal of Instrumentation, 7(08), T08002-T08002. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/7/08/t08002Ageron, M., Aguilar, J. A., Al Samarai, I., Albert, A., Ameli, F., AndrĂ©, M., 
 Ardid, M. (2011). ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 656(1), 11-38. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2011.06.103Ahn, H. S., Allison, P., Bagliesi, M. G., Beatty, J. J., Bigongiari, G., Childers, J. T., 
 Zinn, S. Y. (2010). DISCREPANT HARDENING OBSERVED IN COSMIC-RAY ELEMENTAL SPECTRA. The Astrophysical Journal, 714(1), L89-L93. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/714/1/l89Albert, A., AndrĂ©, M., Anghinolfi, M., Anton, G., Ardid, M., Aubert, J.-J., 
 Basa, S. (2017). New constraints on all flavor Galactic diffuse neutrino emission with the ANTARES telescope. Physical Review D, 96(6). doi:10.1103/physrevd.96.062001Antoni, T., Apel, W. D., Badea, A. F., Bekk, K., Bercuci, A., BlĂŒmer, J., 
 Zabierowski, J. (2005). KASCADE measurements of energy spectra for elemental groups of cosmic rays: Results and open problems. Astroparticle Physics, 24(1-2), 1-25. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2005.04.001Apel, W. D., Arteaga-VelĂĄzquez, J. C., Bekk, K., Bertaina, M., BlĂŒmer, J., Bozdog, H., 
 Cossavella, F. (2013). KASCADE-Grande measurements of energy spectra for elemental groups of cosmic rays. Astroparticle Physics, 47, 54-66. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.06.004Gaggero, D., Grasso, D., Marinelli, A., Taoso, M., & Urbano, A. (2017). Diffuse Cosmic Rays Shining in the Galactic Center: A Novel Interpretation of H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT Îł -Ray Data. Physical Review Letters, 119(3). doi:10.1103/physrevlett.119.031101Gaggero, D., Grasso, D., Marinelli, A., Urbano, A., & Valli, M. (2015). THE GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRINO SKY: A CONSISTENT PICTURE OF FERMI -LAT, MILAGRO, AND ICECUBE RESULTS. The Astrophysical Journal, 815(2), L25. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/2/l25Gaggero, D., Urbano, A., Valli, M., & Ullio, P. (2015). Gamma-ray sky points to radial gradients in cosmic-ray transport. Physical Review D, 91(8). doi:10.1103/physrevd.91.083012Vladimirov, A. E., Digel, S. W., JĂłhannesson, G., Michelson, P. F., Moskalenko, I. V., Nolan, P. L., 
 Strong, A. W. (2011). GALPROP WebRun: An internet-based service for calculating galactic cosmic ray propagation and associated photon emissions. Computer Physics Communications, 182(5), 1156-1161. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2011.01.01

    An eV-scale sterile neutrino search using eight years of atmospheric muon neutrino data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

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    The results of a 3+1 sterile neutrino search using eight years of data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory are presented. A total of 305,735 muon neutrino events are analyzed in reconstructed energy-zenith space to test for signatures of a matter-enhanced oscillation that would occur given a sterile neutrino state with a mass-squared differences between 0.01\,eV2^2 and 100\,eV2^2. The best-fit point is found to be at sin⁡2(2ξ24)=0.10\sin^2(2\theta_{24})=0.10 and Δm412=4.5eV2\Delta m_{41}^2 = 4.5{\rm eV}^2, which is consistent with the no sterile neutrino hypothesis with a p-value of 8.0\%.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures. This letter is supported by the long-form paper "Searching for eV-scale sterile neutrinos with eight years of atmospheric neutrinos at the IceCube neutrino telescope," also appearing on arXiv. Digital data release available at: https://github.com/icecube/HE-Sterile-8year-data-releas

    Searching for eV-scale sterile neutrinos with eight years of atmospheric neutrinos at the IceCube neutrino telescope

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    We report in detail on searches for eV-scale sterile neutrinos, in the context of a 3+1 model, using eight years of data from the IceCube neutrino telescope. By analyzing the reconstructed energies and zenith angles of 305,735 atmospheric ΜΌ\nu_\mu and ΜˉΌ\bar{\nu}_\mu events we construct confidence intervals in two analysis spaces: sin⁥2(2Ξ24)\sin^2 (2\theta_{24}) vs. Δm412\Delta m^2_{41} under the conservative assumption Ξ34=0\theta_{34}=0; and sin⁥2(2Ξ24)\sin^2(2\theta_{24}) vs. sin⁥2(2Ξ34)\sin^2 (2\theta_{34}) given sufficiently large Δm412\Delta m^2_{41} that fast oscillation features are unresolvable. Detailed discussions of the event selection, systematic uncertainties, and fitting procedures are presented. No strong evidence for sterile neutrinos is found, and the best-fit likelihood is consistent with the no sterile neutrino hypothesis with a p-value of 8\% in the first analysis space and 19\% in the second.Comment: This long-form paper is a companion to the letter "An eV-scale sterile neutrino search using eight years of atmospheric muon neutrino data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory". v2: update other experiments contours on results plo