840 research outputs found

    Deep learning techniques for energy clustering in the CMS ECAL

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    The reconstruction of electrons and photons in CMS depends on topological clustering of the energy deposited by an incident particle in different crystals of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL). These clusters are formed by aggregating neighbouring crystals according to the expected topology of an electromagnetic shower in the ECAL. The presence of upstream material (beampipe, tracker and support structures) causes electrons and photons to start showering before reaching the calorimeter. This effect, combined with the 3.8T CMS magnetic field, leads to energy being spread in several clusters around the primary one. It is essential to recover the energy contained in these satellite clusters in order to achieve the best possible energy resolution for physics analyses. Historically satellite clusters have been associated to the primary cluster using a purely topological algorithm which does not attempt to remove spurious energy deposits from additional pileup interactions (PU). The performance of this algorithm is expected to degrade during LHC Run 3 (2022+) because of the larger average PU levels and the increasing levels of noise due to the ageing of the ECAL detector. New methods are being investigated that exploit state-of-the-art deep learning architectures like Graph Neural Networks (GNN) and self-attention algorithms. These more sophisticated models improve the energy collection and are more resilient to PU and noise, helping to preserve the electron and photon energy resolution achieved during LHC Runs 1 and 2. This work will cover the challenges of training the models as well the opportunity that this new approach offers to unify the ECAL energy measurement with the particle identification steps used in the global CMS photon and electron reconstruction.Comment: Presented at the ACAT 2021: 20th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research, Daejeon, Kr, 29 Nov - 3 Dec 202

    Efficiency of a wide-area survey in achieving short- and long-term warning for small impactors

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    We consider a network of telescopes capable of scanning all the observable sky each night and targeting Near-Earth objects (NEOs) in the size range of the Tunguska-like asteroids, from 160 m down to 10 m. We measure the performance of this telescope network in terms of the time needed to discover at least 50% of the impactors in the considered population with a warning time large enough to undertake proper mitigation actions. The warning times are described by a trimodal distribution and the telescope network has a 50% probability of discovering an impactor of the Tunguska class with at least one week of advance already in the first 10 yr of operations of the survey. These results suggest that the studied survey would be a significant addition to the current NEO discovery efforts

    Non-parametric estimation of survival probabilities with a time-dependent exposure switch: application to (simulated) heart transplant data

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    Background: To summarize the survival experience of patients waiting for heart transplant and to compare it with the post-transplant survival it is not possible to use the Kaplan-Meier estimator considering the intervention status as fixed in time because of the well known "immortaltime bias" issue.Methods: We reviewed and applied to a simulated dataset the available methods to perform a non-parametric analysis accounting for the time-varying nature of the transplant status. Specifically we considered the Simon-Makuch estimator and the recently proposed "clock-back" estimator.Results: We showed that the Simon-Makuch estimator for the survival of patients on list is unbiased but the corresponding estimator of the post-transplant survival is not reliable for non-markov contexts like the one considered. Instead, if the semi-Markov assumption could be postulated (the post-transplant mortality depends mainly on the time since transplant and not on the waiting time to the intervention), the "clock-back" estimator produces valid results.Conclusion: We enlightened the importance of testing the process memory assumptions (e.g. Markov properties) in order to choose the approach more reliable. Moreover, we recommend the use of the Simon-Makuch method to study the survival of patients before the interventionand the use of the "clock back" estimator for the post-intervention survival in semi-markovian contexts

    Ethnic Favoritism : An Axiom of Politics?

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    We study ethnic favoritism in a global sample and rely on nighttime light intensity to capture a broad range of preferential policies targeted towards the political leaders’ ethnic homelands. We construct two panel data sets with several thousand ethnographic regions from around 140 multi-ethnic countries and annual observations from 1992 to 2013. We find robust evidence for ethnic favoritism: nighttime light becomes 7%–10% more intense in the political leaders’ ethnic homelands. We document that ethnic favoritism is a global phenomenon not restricted to Africa, poor countries, or autocracies. We also provide evidence that ethnic favoritism is partly motivated by electoral concerns and more prevalent in the presence of ethnic parties

    Design and Motion Planning for a Reconfigurable Robotic Base

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    A robotic platform for mobile manipulation needs to satisfy two contradicting requirements for many real-world applications: A compact base is required to navigate through cluttered indoor environments, while the support needs to be large enough to prevent tumbling or tip over, especially during fast manipulation operations with heavy payloads or forceful interaction with the environment. This paper proposes a novel robot design that fulfills both requirements through a versatile footprint. It can reconfigure its footprint to a narrow configuration when navigating through tight spaces and to a wide stance when manipulating heavy objects. Furthermore, its triangular configuration allows for high-precision tasks on uneven ground by preventing support switches. A model predictive control strategy is presented that unifies planning and control for simultaneous navigation, reconfiguration, and manipulation. It converts task-space goals into whole-body motion plans for the new robot. The proposed design has been tested extensively with a hardware prototype. The footprint reconfiguration allows to almost completely remove manipulation-induced vibrations. The control strategy proves effective in both lab experiment and during a real-world construction task.Comment: 8 pages, accepted for RA-L and IROS 202

    Clinical and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Self-Care Behaviours in Patients with Heart Failure and Diabetes Mellitus: A Multicentre Cross-Sectional Study

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    Background Self-care is vital for patients with heart failure to maintain health and quality of life, and it is even more vital for those who are also affected by diabetes mellitus, since they are at higher risk of worse outcomes. The literature is unclear on the influence of diabetes on heart failure self-care as well as on the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on self-care. Objectives (1) To compare self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence of patients with heart failure and diabetes versus those heart failure patients without diabetes; (2) to estimate if the presence of diabetes influences self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence of heart failure patients; (3) to identify socio-demographic and clinical determinants of self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence in patients with heart failure and diabetes. Design Secondary analysis of data from a multicentre cross-sectional study. Setting Outpatient clinics from 29 Italian provinces. Participants 1192 adults with confirmed diagnosis of heart failure. Methods Socio-demographic and clinical data were abstracted from patients’ medical records. Self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence were measured with the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index Version 6.2; each scale has a standardized score from 0 to 100, where a score \u3c70 indicates inadequate self-care. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results Of 1192 heart failure patients, 379 (31.8%) had diabetes. In these 379, heart failure self-care behaviours were suboptimal (means range from 53.2 to 55.6). No statistically significant differences were found in any of the three self-care measures in heart failure patients with and without diabetes. The presence of diabetes did not influence self-care maintenance (p = 0.12), self-care management (p = 0.21) or self-care confidence (p = 0.51). Age (p = 0.04), number of medications (p = 0.01), presence of a caregiver (p = 0.04), family income (p = 0.009) and self-care confidence (p \u3c 0.001) were determinants of self-care maintenance. Gender (p = 0.01), number of medications (p = 0.004) and self-care confidence (p \u3c 0.001) were significant determinants of self-care management. Number of medications (p = 0.002) and cognitive function (p \u3c 0.001) were determinants of self-care confidence. Conclusions Self-care was poor in heart failure patients with diabetes mellitus. This population needs more intensive interventions to improve self-care. Determinants of self-care in heart failure patients with diabetes mellitus should be systematically assessed by clinicians to identify patients at risk of inadequate self-care

    Novel bicistronic lentiviral vectors correct β-Hexosaminidase deficiency in neural and hematopoietic stem cells and progeny: implications for in vivo and ex vivo gene therapy of GM2 gangliosidosis.

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    Abstract The favorable outcome of in vivo and ex vivo gene therapy approaches in several Lysosomal Storage Diseases suggests that these treatment strategies might equally benefit GM2 gangliosidosis. Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease (the main forms of GM2 gangliosidosis) result from mutations in either the HEXA or HEXB genes encoding, respectively, the α- or β-subunits of the lysosomal β-Hexosaminidase enzyme. In physiological conditions, α- and β-subunits combine to generate β-Hexosaminidase A (HexA, αβ) and β-Hexosaminidase B (HexB, ββ). A major impairment to establishing in vivo or ex vivo gene therapy for GM2 gangliosidosis is the need to synthesize the α- and β-subunits at high levels and with the correct stoichiometric ratio, and to safely deliver the therapeutic products to all affected tissues/organs. Here, we report the generation and in vitro validation of novel bicistronic lentiviral vectors (LVs) encoding for both the murine and human codon optimized Hexa and Hexb genes. We show that these LVs drive the safe and coordinate expression of the α- and β-subunits, leading to supranormal levels of β-Hexosaminidase activity with prevalent formation of a functional HexA in SD murine neurons and glia, murine bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), and human SD fibroblasts. The restoration/overexpression of β-Hexosaminidase leads to the reduction of intracellular GM2 ganglioside storage in transduced and in cross-corrected SD murine neural progeny, indicating that the transgenic enzyme is secreted and functional. Importantly, bicistronic LVs safely and efficiently transduce human neurons/glia and CD34+ HSPCs, which are target and effector cells, respectively, in prospective in vivo and ex vivo GT approaches. We anticipate that these bicistronic LVs may overcome the current requirement of two vectors co-delivering the α- or β-subunits genes. Careful assessment of the safety and therapeutic potential of these bicistronic LVs in the SD murine model will pave the way to the clinical development of LV-based gene therapy for GM2 gangliosidosis

    Patterns of recurrences in sinonasal cancers undergoing an endoscopic surgery-based treatment: Results of the MUSES* on 940 patients: *MUlti-institutional collaborative Study on Endoscopically treated Sinonasal cancers

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    The improvements in survival with expansion of the survivors' population, along with evolution of endoscopically-based treatment modalities, have contributed to emphasize the clinical relevance of recurrences in sinonasal cancers. However, at present, literature is scant regarding the pattern of recurrences and the therapeutic strategies available to manage long survivors who experienced single or multiple failures. The aim of the present study was to analyze sinonasal cancers recurrences to provide data regarding rates and patterns of relapse, predictors of failure and prognostic impact of the recurrence
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