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    The role of redox system in metastasis formation

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    The metastatic cancer disease represents the real and urgent clinical need in oncology. Therefore, an understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms sustaining the metastatic cascade is critical to advance cancer therapies. Recent studies highlight how redox signaling influences the behavior of metastatic cancer cells, contributes to their travel in bloodstream from the primary tumor to the distant organs and conditions the progression of the micrometastases or their dormant state. Radical oxygen species not only regulate intracellular processes but participate to paracrine circuits by diffusion to nearby cells, thus assuming unpredicted roles in the communication between metastatic cancer cells, blood circulating cells, and stroma cells at site of colonization. Here, we review recent insights in the role of radical oxygen species in the metastasis formation with a special focus on extravasation at metastatic sites. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10456-021-09779-5