1,930 research outputs found

    On the variability of I(7620 Ă…)/I(5577 Ă…) in low altitude aurora

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    International audienceAn auroral electron excitation model, combined with simple equilibrium neutral and ion chemistry models, is used to investigate the optical emission processes and height profiles of I(5577 Ă…) and I(7620 Ă…) in the 90 to 100 km altitude region. It is shown that the apparent discrepancies between ground-based and rocket-borne auroral observations of the I(7620 Ă…)/I(5577 Ă…) ratio are due to the extreme height variation of this intensity ratio in the 90 to 100 km region

    Testing a Grassroots Citizen Science Venture Using Open Design, “the Bee Lab Project”

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    The Bee Lab project applies Citizen Science and Open Design to beekeeping, enabling participants to construct monitoring devices gathering reciprocal data, motivating participants and third parties. The presented approach uses design workshops to provide insight into the design of kits, user motivations, promoting reciprocal interests and address community problems. This paper signposts issues and opportunities in the process of designing Citizen Science tools for communities using Open Design to solve individual problems, including: downloadable design for social/local change, laypeople creating technology and repairable kits

    Optical and Radar Characterization of a Short-Lived Auroral Event at High Latitude

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    Observations of optical emission intensities and incoherent scatter radar returns in the magnetic zenith were compared in a study carried out at Sondre Stromfjord (Λ = 76.1°) in Greenland. The results were used to test the consistency of a theoretical model of ion chemistry and optical emissions in aurora and to explore the accuracy of relations between optical measurements and the average energy of the incident electrons. The incident primary electron spectrum and its temporal variation were inferred from zenith electron density profiles from the radar. The inferred primary energy spectrum at the peak intensity of the event approximated a Maxwellian distribution of characteristic energy 1.3 keV accelerated by an energy increment between 2 and 5 keV. Average energies inferred from the radar electron density profiles, from the N2 + rotational temperature and the I(6300)/I(4278) ratio were in good agreement. The variation of the I(8446)/I(4278) ratio was studied and was found to be promising as an index of average incident electron energy. An empirical relation between this ratio and average energy was derived from the data. The observed values of I(4278) exceeded the theoretical values derived from the ionization rate profiles deduced from the radar data by a factor near 2.0. Observed electron density profiles and theoretical profiles calculated from optical data were in good agreement provided that the optically inferred ion production rates were reduced by the same factor of 2. This discrepancy is probably the cumulative result of small errors in instrument calibrations, viewing geometry, recombination coefficients and the excitation and ionization cross sections used in the model

    Ultraviolet photochemistry of 2-bromothiophene explored using universal ionization detection and multi-mass velocity-map imaging with a PImMS2 sensor

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    This project is funded by EPSRC Programme Grant No. EP/L005913/1. The raw ion events data and calculation log files can be retrieved from the University of Bristol’s research data repository and can be accessed using the following DOI:10.5523/bris.k35bi3pqsdbh2b5moo2e3puxf.The ultraviolet photochemistry of 2-bromothiophene (C4H3SBr) has been studied across the wavelength range 265-245 nm using a velocity-map imaging (VMI) apparatus recently modified for multi-mass imaging and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 118.2 nm) universal ionization. At all wavelengths, molecular products arising from the loss of atomic bromine were found to exhibit recoil velocities and anisotropies consistent with those reported elsewhere for the Br fragment [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 224303 (2015)]. Comparison between the momentum distributions of the Br and C4H3S fragments suggests that bromine is formed primarily in its ground (2P3/2) spin-orbit state. These distributions match well at high momentum, but relatively fewer slow moving molecular fragments were detected. This is explained by the observation of a second substantial ionic product, C3H3+. Analysis of ion images recorded simultaneously for several ion masses and the results of high-level ab initio calculations suggest that this fragment ion arises from dissociative ionization (by the VUV probe laser) of the most internally excited C4H3S fragments. This study provides an excellent benchmark for the recently modified VMI instrumentation and offers a powerful demonstration of the emerging field of multi-mass VMI using event-triggered, high frame-rate sensors, and universal ionization.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Modern microwave methods in solid state inorganic materials chemistry: from fundamentals to manufacturing

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    Perfectionism and achievement goals in young Finnish ice-hockey players aspiring to make the Under-16 national team

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    Research on perfectionism suggests that is it useful to differentiate between perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Regarding the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework, the usefulness of this differentiation was recently demonstrated in a study with university student athletes (Stoeber, Stoll, Pescheck, & Otto, 2008, Study 2), in which it was found that perfectionistic strivings were associated with mastery-approach and performance-approach goals and perfectionistic concerns with mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. Because the study was largely exploratory and only used non-elite athletes, the aim of the present research was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating a sample of 138 young, elite ice-hockey players, while adding further measures of perfectionism and using structural equation modelling (SEM) to confirm the relationships between perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns,and the 2 x 2 achievement goals. The SEM results showed that, in elite athletes also, perfectionistic strivings are associated with mastery-approach and performance-approach goals, whereas perfectionistic concerns are associated with masteryavoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. Our findings corroborate the importance of differentiating between perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns when studying perfectionism in sports, because only perfectionistic concerns (and not perfectionistic strivings) are associated with maladaptive patterns of achievement goals

    The intestinal expulsion of the roundworm Ascaris suum is associated with eosinophils, intra-epithelial T cells and decreased intestinal transit time

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    Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections
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