140 research outputs found

    Past-directed scalar field gradients and scalar-tensor thermodynamics

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    We refine and slightly enlarge the recently proposed first-order thermodynamics of scalar-tensor gravity to include gravitational scalar fields with timelike and past-directed gradients. The implications and subtleties arising in this situation are discussed and an exact cosmological solution of scalar-tensor theory in first-order thermodynamics is revisited in light of these results.Comment: 7 pages, no figure

    Spherical inhomogeneous solutions of Einstein and scalar-tensor gravity: a map of the land

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    We review spherical and inhomogeneous analytic solutions of the field equations of Einstein and of scalar-tensor gravity, including Brans-Dicke theory, non-minimally (possibly conformally) coupled scalar fields, Horndeski, and beyond Horndeski/DHOST gravity. The zoo includes both static and dynamic solutions, asymptotically flat, and asymptotically Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker ones. We minimize overlap with existing books and reviews and we place emphasis on scalar field spacetimes and on geometries that are "general" within certain classes. Relations between various solutions, which have largely emerged during the last decade, are pointed out.Comment: 140 pages, one figure. Explanation text and bibliography expanded, typographical errors corrected. Matches version to appear in Physics Report

    New time-dependent solutions of viable Horndeski gravity

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    We generate new spherical and time-dependent solutions of viable Horndeski gravity by disforming a solution of the Einstein equations with scalar field source and positive cosmological constant. They describe dynamical objects embedded in asymptotically FLRW spacetimes and contain apparent horizons and a finite radius singularity that evolve in time in peculiar ways apparently not encountered before in Einstein and "old" scalar-tensor gravity.Comment: 17 pages, 2 figure