284 research outputs found

    Matrix Representation of Iterative Approximate Byzantine Consensus in Directed Graphs

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    This paper presents a proof of correctness of an iterative approximate Byzantine consensus (IABC) algorithm for directed graphs. The iterative algorithm allows fault- free nodes to reach approximate conensus despite the presence of up to f Byzantine faults. Necessary conditions on the underlying network graph for the existence of a correct IABC algorithm were shown in our recent work [15, 16]. [15] also analyzed a specific IABC algorithm and showed that it performs correctly in any network graph that satisfies the necessary condition, proving that the necessary condition is also sufficient. In this paper, we present an alternate proof of correctness of the IABC algorithm, using a familiar technique based on transition matrices [9, 3, 17, 19]. The key contribution of this paper is to exploit the following observation: for a given evolution of the state vector corresponding to the state of the fault-free nodes, many alternate state transition matrices may be chosen to model that evolution cor- rectly. For a given state evolution, we identify one approach to suitably "design" the transition matrices so that the standard tools for proving convergence can be applied to the Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm as well. In particular, the transition matrix for each iteration is designed such that each row of the matrix contains a large enough number of elements that are bounded away from 0

    Complexity of Multi-Value Byzantine Agreement

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    In this paper, we consider the problem of maximizing the throughput of Byzantine agreement, given that the sum capacity of all links in between nodes in the system is finite. We have proposed a highly efficient Byzantine agreement algorithm on values of length l>1 bits. This algorithm uses error detecting network codes to ensure that fault-free nodes will never disagree, and routing scheme that is adaptive to the result of error detection. Our algorithm has a bit complexity of n(n-1)l/(n-t), which leads to a linear cost (O(n)) per bit agreed upon, and overcomes the quadratic lower bound (Omega(n^2)) in the literature. Such linear per bit complexity has only been achieved in the literature by allowing a positive probability of error. Our algorithm achieves the linear per bit complexity while guaranteeing agreement is achieved correctly even in the worst case. We also conjecture that our algorithm can be used to achieve agreement throughput arbitrarily close to the agreement capacity of a network, when the sum capacity is given

    Optimal CSMA-based Wireless Communication with Worst-case Delay and Non-uniform Sizes

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    Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) protocols have been shown to reach the full capacity region for data communication in wireless networks, with polynomial complexity. However, current literature achieves the throughput optimality with an exponential delay scaling with the network size, even in a simplified scenario for transmission jobs with uniform sizes. Although CSMA protocols with order-optimal average delay have been proposed for specific topologies, no existing work can provide worst-case delay guarantee for each job in general network settings, not to mention the case when the jobs have non-uniform lengths while the throughput optimality is still targeted. In this paper, we tackle on this issue by proposing a two-timescale CSMA-based data communication protocol with dynamic decisions on rate control, link scheduling, job transmission and dropping in polynomial complexity. Through rigorous analysis, we demonstrate that the proposed protocol can achieve a throughput utility arbitrarily close to its offline optima for jobs with non-uniform sizes and worst-case delay guarantees, with a tradeoff of longer maximum allowable delay

    Asynchronous Convex Consensus in the Presence of Crash Faults

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    This paper defines a new consensus problem, convex consensus. Similar to vector consensus [13, 20, 19], the input at each process is a d-dimensional vector of reals (or, equivalently, a point in the d-dimensional Euclidean space). However, for convex consensus, the output at each process is a convex polytope contained within the convex hull of the inputs at the fault-free processes. We explore the convex consensus problem under crash faults with incorrect inputs, and present an asynchronous approximate convex consensus algorithm with optimal fault tolerance that reaches consensus on an optimal output polytope. Convex consensus can be used to solve other related problems. For instance, a solution for convex consensus trivially yields a solution for vector consensus. More importantly, convex consensus can potentially be used to solve other more interesting problems, such as convex function optimization [5, 4].Comment: A version of this work is published in PODC 201