48 research outputs found

    Probing Rotation of Core-collapse Supernova with Concurrent Analysis of Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos

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    The next time a core-collapse supernova (SN) explodes in our galaxy, vari- ous detectors will be ready and waiting to detect its emissions of gravitational waves (GWs) and neutrinos. Current numerical simulations have successfully introduced multi-dimensional effects to produce exploding SN models, but thus far the explosion mechanism is not well understood. In this paper, we focus on an investigation of progenitor core rotation via comparison of the start time of GW emission and that of the neutronization burst. The GW and neutrino de- tectors are assumed to be, respectively, the KAGRA detector and a co-located gadolinium-loaded water Cherenkov detector, either EGADS or GADZOOKS!. Our detection simulation studies show that for a nearby supernova (0.2 kpc) we can confirm the lack of core rotation close to 100% of the time, and the presence of core rotation about 90% of the time. Using this approach there is also po- tential to confirm rotation for considerably more distant Milky Way supernova explosions.Comment: 31pages, 15figures, submit to Ap

    GADZOOKS! Antineutrino Spectroscopy with Large Water Cerenkov Detectors

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    We propose modifying large water \v{C}erenkov detectors by the addition of 0.2% gadolinium trichloride, which is highly soluble, newly inexpensive, and transparent in solution. Since Gd has an enormous cross section for radiative neutron capture, with Eγ=8\sum E_\gamma = 8 MeV, this would make neutrons visible for the first time in such detectors, allowing antineutrino tagging by the coincidence detection reaction νˉe+pe++n\bar{\nu}_e + p \to e^+ + n (similarly for νˉμ\bar{\nu}_\mu). Taking Super-Kamiokande as a working example, dramatic consequences for reactor neutrino measurements, first observation of the diffuse supernova neutrino background, Galactic supernova detection, and other topics are discussed.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. Correspondence to [email protected], [email protected]

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    TeV Particle Astrophysics 2016

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    A core-collapse supernova is a nearly perfect neutrino bomb. While capable of outshining its entire host galaxy, this stunning light show represents just a small portion of the explosion.  Indeed, each such cataclysmic event typically radiates two orders of magnitude more energy as low-energy neutrinos than it does as electromagnetic radiation or as kinetic shockwaves. Consequently, MeV-scale neutrinos are made in huge numbers as the star is dying, and because these ghostly subatomic particles interact so rarely with normal matter they easily escape the fireball, providing a window into one of the most violent and interesting volumes in space: the heart of a stellar collapse. This talk will cover some of the history of neutrinos and supernovas, as well as how we are preparing new technology and partnerships to observe the next spectacular explosion in all its multimessenger glory