3,124 research outputs found

    Development of a Detector Control System for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

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    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment will be a pixel detector containing around 1750 individual detector modules. A detector control system (DCS) is required to handle thousands of I/O channels with varying characteristics. The main building blocks of the pixel DCS are the cooling system, the power supplies and the thermal interlock system, responsible for the ultimate safety of the pixel sensors. The ATLAS Embedded Local Monitor Board (ELMB), a multi purpose front end I/O system with a CAN interface, is foreseen for several monitoring and control tasks. The Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system will use PVSS, a commercial software product chosen for the CERN LHC experiments. We report on the status of the different building blocks of the ATLAS pixel DCS.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figures, ICALEPCS 200

    A Combine On-Line Acoustic Flowmeter and Fluorocarbon Coolant Mixture Analyzer for The ATLAS Silicon Tracker

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    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) to a blend containing 10-30% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane) to reduce the evaporation temperature and better protect the silicon from cumulative radiation damage with increasing LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new acoustic instrument for the real-time measurement of the C3F8/C2F6 mixture ratio and flow. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. The instrument has demonstrated a resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures with ~20%C2F6, and flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-1. In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of < 5.10-4 to leaks of C3F8 into the ATLAS pixel detector nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. The instrument has many potential applications, including the analysis of mixtures of hydrocarbons, vapours for semi-conductor manufacture and anaesthesia

    Integrable 1/r21/r^2 Spin Chain with Reflecting End

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    A new integrable spin chain of the Haldane-Shastry type is introduced. It is interpreted as the inverse-square interacting spin chain with a {\it reflecting end}. The lattice points of this model consist of the square roots of the zeros of the Laguerre polynomial. Using the ``exchange operator formalism'', the integrals of motion for the model are explicitly constructed.Comment: 13 pages, REVTeX3, with minor correction

    STRUCTURE OF METHYLPHEOPHORBIDE-RCI

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    he methanolic extract of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Spirulina geitleri has been treated with methanolic acid to convert all chlorophyllous pigments to their methylpheophorbides. Fractionation of the latter from methylpheophorbide a by thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography yielded methylpheophorbide-RCI. Its structure has been determined as 132S-hydroxy-20-chloro-methylpheophorbide a by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and by partial synthesis from chlorophyll a. The pigment is isolated from Spirulina geitleri irrespective of the use or omission of chlorinated substances during the isolation procedure

    Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer/flowmeter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to gaseous tracking and Cherenkov detectors

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    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom electronics, currently in use in the ATLAS inner detector, with numerous potential applications. The instrument has demonstrated ~0.3% mixture precision for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures and < 10-4 resolution for N2/C3F8 mixtures. Moderate and high flow versions of the instrument have demonstrated flow resolutions of +/- 2% F.S. for flows up to 250 l.min-1, and +/- 1.9% F.S. for linear flow velocities up to 15 ms-1; the latter flow approaching that expected in the vapour return of the thermosiphon fluorocarbon coolant recirculator being built for the ATLAS silicon tracker.Comment: Paper submitted to TWEPP2012; Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics, Oxford, UK, September 17-21, 2012. KEYWORDS: Sonar; Saturated fluorocarbons; Flowmetry; Sound velocity, Gas mixture analysis. 8 pages, 7 figure

    A novel method for the absolute fluorescence yield measurement by AIRFLY

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    One of the goals of the AIRFLY (AIR FLuorescence Yield) experiment is to measure the absolute fluorescence yield induced by electrons in air to better than 10% precision. We introduce a new technique for measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm line that has the advantage of reducing the systematic uncertainty due to the detector calibration. The principle is to compare the measured fluorescence yield to a well known process - the Cerenkov emission. Preliminary measurements taken in the BFT (Beam Test Facility) in Frascati, Italy with 350 MeV electrons are presented. Beam tests in the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA with 14 MeV electrons have also shown that this technique can be applied at lower energies.Comment: presented at the 5th Fluorescence Workshop, El Escorial - Madrid, Spain, 16 - 20 September 200

    Diamond Detectors for the TOTEM Timing Upgrade

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    This paper describes the design and the performance of the timing detector developed by the TOTEM Collaboration for the Roman Pots (RPs) to measure the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) of the protons produced in central diffractive interactions at the LHC. The measurement of the TOF of the protons allows the determination of the longitudinal position of the proton interaction vertex and its association with one of the vertices reconstructed by the CMS detectors. The TOF detector is based on single crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition (scCVD) diamond plates and is designed to measure the protons TOF with about 50 ps time precision. This upgrade to the TOTEM apparatus will be used in the LHC run 2 and will tag the central diffractive events up to an interaction pileup of about 1. A dedicated fast and low noise electronics for the signal amplification has been developed. The digitization of the diamond signal is performed by sampling the waveform. After introducing the physics studies that will most profit from the addition of these new detectors, we discuss in detail the optimization and the performance of the first TOF detector installed in the LHC in November 2015.Comment: 26 pages, 18 figures, 2 tables, submitted for publication to JINS

    LHC Optics Measurement with Proton Tracks Detected by the Roman Pots of the TOTEM Experiment

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    Precise knowledge of the beam optics at the LHC is crucial to fulfil the physics goals of the TOTEM experiment, where the kinematics of the scattered protons is reconstructed with the near-beam telescopes -- so-called Roman Pots (RP). Before being detected, the protons' trajectories are influenced by the magnetic fields of the accelerator lattice. Thus precise understanding of the proton transport is of key importance for the experiment. A novel method of optics evaluation is proposed which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered protons observed in the RPs. Theoretical predictions, as well as Monte Carlo studies, show that the residual uncertainty of this optics estimation method is smaller than 0.25 percent.Comment: 20 pages, 11 figures, 5 figures, to be submitted to New J. Phy

    Evidence for non-exponential elastic proton-proton differential cross-section at low |t| and sqrt(s) = 8 TeV by TOTEM

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    The TOTEM experiment has made a precise measurement of the elastic proton-proton differential cross-section at the centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 8 TeV based on a high-statistics data sample obtained with the beta* = 90 optics. Both the statistical and systematic uncertainties remain below 1%, except for the t-independent contribution from the overall normalisation. This unprecedented precision allows to exclude a purely exponential differential cross-section in the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.027 < |t| < 0.2 GeV^2 with a significance greater than 7 sigma. Two extended parametrisations, with quadratic and cubic polynomials in the exponent, are shown to be well compatible with the data. Using them for the differential cross-section extrapolation to t = 0, and further applying the optical theorem, yields total cross-section estimates of (101.5 +- 2.1) mb and (101.9 +- 2.1) mb, respectively, in agreement with previous TOTEM measurements.Comment: Final version published in Nuclear Physics

    Temperature and Humidity Dependence of Air Fluorescence Yield measured by AIRFLY

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    The fluorescence detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays requires a detailed knowledge of the fluorescence light emission from nitrogen molecules over a wide range of atmospheric parameters, corresponding to altitudes typical of the cosmic ray shower development in the atmosphere. We have studied the temperature and humidity dependence of the fluorescence light spectrum excited by MeV electrons in air. Results for the 313.6 nm, 337.1 nm, 353.7 nm and 391.4 nm bands are reported in this paper. We found that the temperature and humidity dependence of the quenching process changes the fluorescence yield by a sizeable amount (up to 20%) and its effect must be included for a precise estimation of the energy of ultra high energy cosmic rays.Comment: presented at the 5th Fluorescence Workshop, El Escorial - Madrid, Spain, 16 - 20 September 2007, to appear in Nuclear Instruments and Methods
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