371 research outputs found

    A random walk approach to quantum algorithms

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    The development of quantum algorithms based on quantum versions of random walks is placed in the context of the emerging field of quantum computing. Constructing a suitable quantum version of a random walk is not trivial: pure quantum dynamics is deterministic, so randomness only enters during the measurement phase, i.e., when converting the quantum information into classical information. The outcome of a quantum random walk is very different from the corresponding classical random walk, due to interference between the different possible paths. The upshot is that quantum walkers find themselves further from their starting point on average than a classical walker, and this forms the basis of a quantum speed up that can be exploited to solve problems faster. Surprisingly, the effect of making the walk slightly less than perfectly quantum can optimize the properties of the quantum walk for algorithmic applications. Looking to the future, with even a small quantum computer available, development of quantum walk algorithms might proceed more rapidly than it has, especially for solving real problems

    Limit theorems for a localization model of 2-state quantum walks

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    We consider 2-state quantum walks (QWs) on the line, which are defined by two matrices. One of the matrices operates the walk at only half-time. In the usual QWs, localization does not occur at all. However, our walk can be localized around the origin. In this paper, we present two limit theorems, that is, one is a stationary distribution and the other is a convergence theorem in distribution.Comment: International Journal of Quantum Information, Vol.9, No.3, pp.863-874 (2011

    Quantum walks on general graphs

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    Quantum walks, both discrete (coined) and continuous time, on a general graph of N vertices with undirected edges are reviewed in some detail. The resource requirements for implementing a quantum walk as a program on a quantum computer are compared and found to be very similar for both discrete and continuous time walks. The role of the oracle, and how it changes if more prior information about the graph is available, is also discussed.Comment: 8 pages, v2: substantial rewrite improves clarity, corrects errors and omissions; v3: removes major error in final section and integrates remainder into other sections, figures remove

    Quantum walks with random phase shifts

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    We investigate quantum walks in multiple dimensions with different quantum coins. We augment the model by assuming that at each step the amplitudes of the coin state are multiplied by random phases. This model enables us to study in detail the role of decoherence in quantum walks and to investigate the quantum-to-classical transition. We also provide classical analogues of the quantum random walks studied. Interestingly enough, it turns out that the classical counterparts of some quantum random walks are classical random walks with a memory and biased coin. In addition random phase shifts "simplify" the dynamics (the cross interference terms of different paths vanish on average) and enable us to give a compact formula for the dispersion of such walks.Comment: to appear in Phys. Rev. A (10 pages, 5 figures

    Decoherence vs entanglement in coined quantum walks

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    Quantum versions of random walks on the line and cycle show a quadratic improvement in their spreading rate and mixing times respectively. The addition of decoherence to the quantum walk produces a more uniform distribution on the line, and even faster mixing on the cycle by removing the need for time-averaging to obtain a uniform distribution. We calculate numerically the entanglement between the coin and the position of the quantum walker and show that the optimal decoherence rates are such that all the entanglement is just removed by the time the final measurement is made.Comment: 11 pages, 6 embedded eps figures; v2 improved layout and discussio

    Quantum discord and the power of one qubit

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    We use quantum discord to characterize the correlations present in the quantum computational model DQC1, introduced by Knill and Laflamme [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5672 (1998)]. The model involves a collection of qubits in the completely mixed state coupled to a single control qubit that has nonzero purity. The initial state, operations, and measurements in the model all point to a natural bipartite split between the control qubit and the mixed ones. Although there is no entanglement between these two parts, we show that the quantum discord across this split is nonzero for typical instances of the DQC1 ciruit. Nonzero values of discord indicate the presence of nonclassical correlations. We propose quantum discord as figure of merit for characterizing the resources present in this computational model.Comment: 4 Pages, 1 Figur

    Inertial effects in three dimensional spinodal decomposition of a symmetric binary fluid mixture: A lattice Boltzmann study

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    The late-stage demixing following spinodal decomposition of a three-dimensional symmetric binary fluid mixture is studied numerically, using a thermodynamicaly consistent lattice Boltzmann method. We combine results from simulations with different numerical parameters to obtain an unprecendented range of length and time scales when expressed in reduced physical units. Using eight large (256^3) runs, the resulting composite graph of reduced domain size l against reduced time t covers 1 < l < 10^5, 10 < t < 10^8. Our data is consistent with the dynamical scaling hypothesis, that l(t) is a universal scaling curve. We give the first detailed statistical analysis of fluid motion, rather than just domain evolution, in simulations of this kind, and introduce scaling plots for several quantities derived from the fluid velocity and velocity gradient fields.Comment: 49 pages, latex, J. Fluid Mech. style, 48 embedded eps figs plus 6 colour jpegs for Fig 10 on p.2

    Interface Width and Bulk Stability: requirements for the simulation of Deeply Quenched Liquid-Gas Systems

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    Simulations of liquid-gas systems with extended interfaces are observed to fail to give accurate results for two reasons: the interface can get ``stuck'' on the lattice or a density overshoot develops around the interface. In the first case the bulk densities can take a range of values, dependent on the initial conditions. In the second case inaccurate bulk densities are found. In this communication we derive the minimum interface width required for the accurate simulation of liquid gas systems with a diffuse interface. We demonstrate this criterion for lattice Boltzmann simulations of a van der Waals gas. When combining this criterion with predictions for the bulk stability we can predict the parameter range that leads to stable and accurate simulation results. This allows us to identify parameter ranges leading to high density ratios of over 1000. This is despite the fact that lattice Boltzmann simulations of liquid-gas systems were believed to be restricted to modest density ratios of less than 20.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure
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