1,624 research outputs found

    A device to characterize optical fibres

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    ATLAS is a general purpose experiment approved for the LHC collider at CERN. An important component of the detector is the central hadronic calorimeter; for its construction more than 600,000 Wave Length Shifting (WLS) fibres (corresponding to a total length of 1,120 Km) have been used. We have built and put into operation a dedicated instrument for the measurement of light yield and attenuation length over groups of 20 fibres at a time. The overall accuracy achieved in the measurement of light yield (attenuation length) is 1.5% (3%). We also report the results obtained using this method in the quality control of a large sample of fibres.Comment: 17 pages 20 figeres submitted to NIM journa

    Alignment procedure for the VIRGO Interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati prototype

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    A small fixed-mirror Michelson interferometer has been built in Frascati to experimentally study the alignment method that has been suggested for VIRGO. The experimental results fully confirm the adequacy of the method. The minimum angular misalignment that can be detected in the present set-up is 10 nrad/sqrt{Hz}Comment: 10 pages, LaTex2e, 4 figures, 5 tables. Submitted to Phys. Lett.

    Linearization of Cohomology-free Vector Fields

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    We study the cohomological equation for a smooth vector field on a compact manifold. We show that if the vector field is cohomology free, then it can be embedded continuously in a linear flow on an Abelian group

    Obesity and Breast Cancer: Interaction or Interference with the Response to Therapy?

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    Background: Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are widely used for treating hormone-sensitive breast cancer (BC). Obesity, however, due to aromatase-mediated androgen conversion into estradiol in the peripheral adipose tissue, might impair AI inhibitory capacity. We aimed at identifying a cut-off of body mass index (BMI) with significant prognostic impact, in a cohort of stage I-II BC patients on systemic adjuvant therapy with AI. Methods: we retrospectively evaluated routinely collected baseline parameters. The optimal BMI cut-off affecting disease-free survival (DFS) in AI-treated BC patients was identified through maximally selected rank statistics; non-linear association between BMI and DFS in the AI cohort was assessed by hazard-ratio-smoothed curve analysis using BMI as continuous variable. The impact of the BMI cut-off on survival outcomes was estimated through Kaplan-Meier plots, with log-rank test and hazard ratio estimation comparing patient subgroups. Results: A total of 319 BC patients under adjuvant endocrine therapy and/or adjuvant chemotherapy were included. Curve-fitting analysis showed that for a BMI cut-off >29 in AI-treated BC patients (n = 172), DFS was increasingly deteriorating and that the impact of BMI on 2-year DFS identified a cut-off specific only for the cohort of postmenopausal BC patients under adjuvant therapy with AI. Conclusion: in radically resected hormone-sensitive BC patients undergoing neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and treated with AI, obesity represents a risk factor for recurrence, with a significantly reduced 2-year DFS

    2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator

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    We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8 % over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265 nm-thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nano-membrane as end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 ÎĽ\mum and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane

    The effect of CpG-ODN on antigen presenting cells of the foal

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    BACKGROUND: Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) has been used successfully to induce immune responses against viral and intracellular organisms in mammals. The main objective of this study was to test the effect of CpG-ODN on antigen presenting cells of young foals. METHODS: Peripheral blood monocytes of foals (n = 7) were isolated in the first day of life and monthly thereafter up to 3 months of life. Adult horse (n = 7) monocytes were isolated and tested once for comparison. Isolated monocytes were stimulated with IL-4 and GM-CSF (to obtain dendritic cells, DC) or not stimulated (to obtain macrophages). Macrophages and DCs were stimulated for 14-16 hours with either CpG-ODN, LPS or not stimulated. The stimulated and non-stimulated cells were tested for cell surface markers (CD86 and MHC class II) using flow cytometry, mRNA expression of cytokines (IL-12, IFNalpha, IL-10) and TLR-9 using real time quantitative RT-PCR, and for the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB p65 using a chemiluminescence assay. RESULTS: The median fluorescence of the MHC class II molecule in non-stimulated foal macrophages and DCs at birth were 12.5 times and 11.2 times inferior, respectively, than adult horse cells (p = 0.009). That difference subsided at 3 months of life (p = 0.3). The expression of the CD86 co-stimulatory molecule was comparable in adult horse and foal macrophages and DCs, independent of treatment. CpG-ODN stimulation induced IL-12p40 (53 times) and IFNalpha (23 times) mRNA expression in CpG-ODN-treated adult horse DCs (p = 0.078), but not macrophages, in comparison to non-stimulated cells. In contrast, foal APCs did not respond to CpG-ODN stimulation with increased cytokine mRNA expression up to 3 months of age. TLR-9 mRNA expression and NF-kB activation (NF-kB p65) in foal DCs and macrophages were comparable (p \u3e 0.05) to adult horse cells. CONCLUSION: CpG-ODN treatment did not induce specific maturation and cytokine expression in foal macrophages and DCs. Nevertheless, adult horse DCs, but not macrophages, increased their expression of IL-12 and IFNalpha cytokines upon CpG-ODN stimulation. Importantly, foals presented an age-dependent limitation in the expression of MHC class II in macrophages and DCs, independent of treatment

    Laser frequency stabilization using folded cavity and mirror reflectivity tuning

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    International audienceA new method of laser frequency stabilization using polarization property of an optical cavity is proposed. In a standard Fabry–Perot cavity, the coating layers thickness of cavity mirrors is calculated to obtain the same phase shift for sand p-wave but a slight detuning from the nominal thickness can produce sand p-wave phase detuning. As a result, each wave accumulates a different round-trip phase shift and resonates at a different frequency. Using this polarization property, an error signal is generated by a simple setup consisting of a quarter wave-plate rotated at 45°, a polarizing beam splitter and two photodiodes. This method exhibits similar error signal as the Pound–Drever–Hall technique but without need for any frequency modulation. Lock theory and experimental results are presented in this paper.

    High flux polarized gamma rays production: first measurements with a four-mirror cavity at the ATF

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    The next generation of e+/e- colliders will require a very intense flux of gamma rays to allow high current polarized positrons to be produced. This can be achieved by converting polarized high energy photons in polarized pairs into a target. In that context, an optical system consisting of a laser and a four-mirror passive Fabry-Perot cavity has recently been installed at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK to produce a high flux of polarized gamma rays by inverse Compton scattering. In this contribution, we describe the experimental system and present preliminary results. An ultra-stable four-mirror non planar geometry has been implemented to ensure the polarization of the gamma rays produced. A fiber amplifier is used to inject about 10W in the high finesse cavity with a gain of 1000. A digital feedback system is used to keep the cavity at the length required for the optimal power enhancement. Preliminary measurements show that a flux of about 4Ă—106Îł4\times10^6 \gamma/s with an average energy of about 24 MeV was generated. Several upgrades currently in progress are also described
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