11 research outputs found

    Strengthening Smart Contracts: An AI-Driven Security Exploration

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    Smart contracts are automated agreements in which the conditions between the purchaser and the vendor are encoded directly into lines of code allowing them to execute automatically Smart contracts have emerged as a ground-breaking technology facilitating the decentralized and trustless execution of agreements on blockchain platforms However the widespread adoption of smart contracts exposes them to various security threats leading to substantial financial losses and reputational harm Artificial Intelligence has the capability to aid in the detection and reduction of vulnerabilities thereby enhancing the overall strength and resilience of smart contracts This integration can create highly secure and transparent systems that reduce the risk of fraud corruption and other malicious activities thereby increasing trust and confidence in these systems and improving overall security This research paper delves into the innovative applications of Artificial Intelligence techniques to enhance the security of smart contracts Investigating the potential of AI in detecting vulnerabilities identifying potential attacks and offering automated solutions for safer smart contracts will significantly contribute to the development and flawless execution of this emerging technolog

    Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

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    <b>Background:</b> Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities.<b> </b><b>Objectives:</b> The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter. <b>Results:</b> Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. <b>Conclusion:</b> The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water

    Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children of Davangere city, India by using Dental Aesthetic Index

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    Background: Malocclusion has large impact on individual and society in term of discomfort, Quality of Life [QoL] Aims and Objectives: To assess prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children of Davangere city, India by using Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]. Materials and Methods: A Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 1000, in the age group 12 to 15 year old school children studying in middle and high schools of Davangere city, India. 10 schools were selected by simple random sampling procedure and 100 study subjects were selected proportionately for males and females by using systematic random sampling procedures in each school. Data recorded using proforma consisted DAI components. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: The Chi-square test [x 2 ] was used for comparison of severity of malocclusion. Analysis of Variance [ANOVA] test was used for comparison of mean DAI scores between the age groups and in DAI scores. &#x2032;Z&#x2032; test was used for comparing the mean DAI scores between sex group. Results: Of the 1000 children examined, 518[ 51.8&#x0025;] were males and 482[ 48.2&#x0025;] were females. 80.1&#x0025; school children had &#8804; 25 DAI scores with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.7&#x0025; had 26-30 DAI scores with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 3.7&#x0025; had 31-35 DAI scores with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment and 0.5&#x0025; had &#8805; 36 DAI scores with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: 80.1&#x0025; school children had no or minor malocclusion which required no or slight treatment, 19.9&#x0025; had definite/handicapping malocclusion requiring definite/mandatory orthodontic treatment

    An analysis of concentration of sucrose, endogenous pH, and alteration in the plaque pH on consumption of commonly used liquid pediatric medicines

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    Background: Many parents are often unaware of the hidden, added sugars in many foods and drinks including pediatric liquid medicines; thus, hidden sugar in the form of pediatric medications has not been focused upon as cariogenic agents. Objective: (i) assess concentration of sucrose in six pediatric drugs, (ii) determine endogenous pH of these drugs, and (iii) estimate drop in the plaque pH in the oral cavity in first 30 minutes after consumption of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Ten adult volunteers with mean age of 22 years were double blinded for the study. Concentration of sucrose was assessed by volumetric method at Department of Chemical Branch of Engineering. Endogenous pH and drop in the plaque pH after consumption of the drugs were assessed using digital pH meter. Statistical analysis: SPSS software was used to assess the pH level at different time intervals and expressed as mean &#x00B1; SD. Changes in pH were assessed by one-way ANOVA followed by Wilcoxons signed rank test. P-value was set at 0.05. Result: There were varying amounts of fermentable sucrose detected in the drugs; all the drugs were acidic. There is a significant drop of plaque pH after consumption of the drug. Conclusion: These sweeteners along with their low endogenic pH form a high cariogenic formulation. Thus, nonsucrose (noncariogenic) or sugar-free medications are needed to be prescribed along with proper oral hygiene care to the children under medication

    Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children of an area known for endemic fluorosis: Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh

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    Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess dental fluorosis and to compare fluorosis in incisor teeth among 13- to 15-year-old school children of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. A total of 1000 school children aged 13 to 15 years were selected by stratified cluster sampling from 4 different areas with different levels of naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water. Fluorosis was recorded using TF index (TFI). Results: Prevalence of fluorosis (TFI score, &#8805;1) was 100&#x0025; at all the 4 different fluoride levels. The prevalence and severity increased with increased fluoride levels in drinking water. Prevalence and severity of fluorosis did not show any significant variation between maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of mild-to-moderate fluorosis in Nalgonda district, even in areas with optimal fluoride levels in water

    CNT@rGO@MoCuSe Composite as an Efficient Counter Electrode for Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

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    This paper reports an efficient and simple strategy for the synthesis of molybdenum copper selenide (MoCuSe) nanoparticles decorated with a combination of a carbon nanotube (CNT) network and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets to form an integrated hybrid architecture (CNT@rGO@MoCuSe) using a two-step hydrothermal approach. The synthesized hybrid CNT@rGO@MoCuSe material onto the Ni foam substrate is applied successfully as an effective counter electrode (CE) in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A highly conductive CNT@rGO network grown on electrochemically active MoCuSe particles provides a large surface area and exhibits a rapid electron transport rate at the interface of CE/electrolyte. As a result, the QDSSC with the designed CNT@rGO@MoCuSe CE shows a higher power conversion efficiency of 8.28% under 1 sun (100 mW cm<sup>–2</sup>) irradiation, which is almost double the efficiency of 4.04% for the QDSSC with the MoCuSe CE. Furthermore, the QDSSC based on the CNT@rGO@MoCuSe CE delivers superior stability at a working state for over 100 h. Therefore, CNT@rGO@MoCuSe is very promising as a stable and efficient CE for QDSSCs and offers new opportunities for the development of hybrid, effective, and robust materials for energy-related fields
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