78 research outputs found

    Sugars of pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke] grains

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    The sugars in the grains of nine pearl millet cultivars were fractionated through a Biogel column. Five different sugars‘(stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose) were identified. Sucrose was predominant in all the cultivars. Raffinose content was high as compared to other cereals, and maltose was absen

    A multi-dimensional study to estimate the behaviour of the general public during COVID-19 pandemic

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    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on societies all over the world, leading to significant shifts in individual behavior as well as societal norms. The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth look at the many different aspects of public behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Demographic information, COVID-19 knowledge and awareness, prevention adherence, vaccination attitudes, and psychological well-being as a whole were all be gathered through the quantitative survey. The subjective meetings will give further bits of knowledge into the hidden inspirations, discernments, and difficulties faced by people in following general wellbeing rules. Results: To find patterns and correlations among the various variables, statistical methods like regression analysis, factor analysis, and clustering algorithms were used in the data analysis. The subjective information was investigated specifically, separating key topics and accounts that shed light on the subtleties of the public’s way of behaving during the pandemic. Conclusions: In the end, the goal of this multidimensional study was to help make decisions based on evidence and come up with plans to improve public health and lessen the impact of infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19

    Impact of Preexisting Adenovirus Vector Immunity on Immunogenicity and Protection Conferred with an Adenovirus-Based H5N1 Influenza Vaccine

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    The prevalence of preexisting immunity to adenoviruses in the majority of the human population might adversely impact the development of adaptive immune responses against adenovirus vector-based vaccines. To address this issue, we primed BALB/c mice either intranasally (i.n.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) with varying doses of wild type (WT) human adenovirus subtype 5 (HAd5). Following the development of immunity against HAd5, we immunized animals via the i.n. or i.m. route of inoculation with a HAd vector (HAd-HA-NP) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) of A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) influenza virus. The immunogenicity and protection results suggest that low levels of vector immunity (<520 virus-neutralization titer) induced by priming mice with up to 107 plaque forming units (p.f.u.) of HAd-WT did not adversely impact the protective efficacy of the vaccine. Furthermore, high levels of vector immunity (approximately 1500 virus-neutralization titer) induced by priming mice with 108 p.f.u. of HAd-WT were overcome by either increasing the vaccine dose or using alternate routes of vaccination. A further increase in the priming dose to 109 p.f.u. allowed only partial protection. These results suggest possible strategies to overcome the variable levels of human immunity against adenoviruses, leading to better utilization of HAd vector-based vaccines

    Amylase Activity and Sprout Damage in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

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    Sorghum grain samples from several genotypes affected by wet and humid weather during maturation were studied. Amylase activity in the rain-affected grains ranged from 6.1 to 18.0 units per gram, whereas values below 6.7 were observed for dry-season harvests. Enzyme activity in the range of 8.2-12.6 units per gram was associated with incipient damage, while values above 12.6 were associated with visible symptoms of sprouting. Laboratory-sprouted samples (30 hr) of 15 cultivars showed an average enzyme activity of 22.8 units per gram and poor rolling, gel, and roti quality characters. Increased amylase activity was associated with decreased food quality characteristics. Studies on composites of normal and sprouted grain samples showed th at 20% sprouted grains in the composite resulted in significant changes in the food-quality properties

    Fatty acid desaturation index correlates with body mass and adiposity indices of obesity in Wistar NIN obese mutant rat strains WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob

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    BACKGROUND: Microsomal stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) is the rate limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs); palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acid from their respective substrates palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids. The ratio of 18:1 to 18:0 has been implicated in the regulation membrane fluidity and function. SCD1 is abundantly expressed in obese humans as well as rodent models. However, no studies have correlated the fatty acid desaturation index (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0), an indicator of SCD1 activity with the markers of obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI) and adiposity index (AI). Therefore, here, we attempted to relate the fatty acid desaturation index with BMI and AI in Wistar NIN-obese mutant rat strains namely, WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob (with impaired glucose tolerance). METHODS: For this purpose, 200 days old male 6 lean and 6 obese rats of both strains were taken. Fatty acid composition was analyzed in plasma, various tissues such as liver, white adipose tissues (retroperitoneal, epididymal, omental, and subcutaneous) and brown adipose tissue. RESULTS: Fatty acid composition data showed significant increase in palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acid levels, which were reflected in increased desaturation index (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0) in plasma and all the tissues of obese rats of both strains, when compared with their respective age and sex-matched lean rats. Further, we found a strong positive correlation between desaturation index, BMI and AI in plasma and most of the tissues analyzed. CONCLUSION: So far, plasma Δ(9 )desaturation index has been well correlated with hypertriglyceridemia and we, by employing two models of obesity namely, WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob, have shown Δ(9 )desaturation index of plasma correlated with physical markers of obesity such as BMI and AI. In conclusion, Δ(9 )desaturation index may serve as a potential sensitive biochemical marker to assess the degree of obesity and impact of therapeutic/nutritional interventions to combat obesity, along with other indicators

    The 3′ Untranslated Regions of Influenza Genomic Sequences Are 5′PPP-Independent Ligands for RIG-I

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    Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a key regulator of antiviral immunity. RIG-I is generally thought to be activated by ssRNA species containing a 5′-triphosphate (PPP) group or by unphosphorylated dsRNA up to ∼300 bp in length. However, it is not yet clear how changes in the length, nucleotide sequence, secondary structure, and 5′ end modification affect the abilities of these ligands to bind and activate RIG-I. To further investigate these parameters in the context of naturally occurring ligands, we examined RNA sequences derived from the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTR) of the influenza virus NS1 gene segment. As expected, RIG-I-dependent interferon-β (IFN-β) induction by sequences from the 5′ UTR of the influenza cRNA or its complement (26 nt in length) required the presence of a 5′PPP group. In contrast, activation of RIG-I by the 3′ UTR cRNA sequence or its complement (172 nt) exhibited only a partial 5′PPP-dependence, as capping the 5′ end or treatment with CIP showed a modest reduction in RIG-I activation. Furthermore, induction of IFN-β by a smaller, U/A-rich region within the 3′ UTR was completely 5′PPP-independent. Our findings demonstrated that RNA sequence, length, and secondary structure all contributed to whether or not the 5′PPP moiety is needed for interferon induction by RIG-I

    Prevalent, protective, and convergent IgG recognition of SARS-CoV-2 non-RBD spike epitopes

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    The molecular composition and binding epitopes of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that circulate in blood plasma following SARS-CoV-2 infection are unknown. Proteomic deconvolution of the IgG repertoire to the spike glycoprotein in convalescent subjects revealed that the response is directed predominantly (>80%) against epitopes residing outside the receptor-binding domain (RBD). In one subject, just four IgG lineages accounted for 93.5% of the response, including an N-terminal domain (NTD)-directed antibody that was protective against lethal viral challenge. Genetic, structural, and functional characterization of a multi-donor class of “public” antibodies revealed an NTD epitope that is recurrently mutated among emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. These data show that “public” NTD-directed and other non-RBD plasma antibodies are prevalent and have implications for SARS-CoV-2 protection and antibody escape

    Is Nitric Oxide Decrease Observed with Naphthoquinones in LPS Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages a Beneficial Property?

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    The search of new anti-inflammatory drugs has been a current preoccupation, due to the need of effective drugs, with less adverse reactions than those used nowadays. Several naphthoquinones (plumbagin, naphthazarin, juglone, menadione, diosquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone), plus p-hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone were evaluated for their ability to cause a reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, when RAW 264.7 macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Dexamethasone was used as positive control. Among the tested compounds, diosquinone was the only one that caused a NO reduction with statistical importance and without cytotoxicity: an IC25 of 1.09±0.24 µM was found, with 38.25±6.50% (p<0.001) NO reduction at 1.5 µM. In order to elucidate if this NO decrease resulted from the interference of diosquinone with cellular defence mechanisms against LPS or to its conversion into peroxynitrite, by reaction with superoxide radical formed by naphthoquinones redox cycling, 3-nitrotyrosine and superoxide determination was also performed. None of these parameters showed significant changes relative to control. Furthermore, diosquinone caused a decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Therefore, according to the results obtained, diosquinone, studied for its anti-inflammatory potential for the first time herein, has beneficial effects in inflammation control. This study enlightens the mechanisms of action of naphthoquinones in inflammatory models, by checking for the first time the contribution of oxidative stress generated by naphthoquinones to NO reduction
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