3,531 research outputs found

    Synechococcus dynamics in the Levantine basin shelf waters (northeastern Mediterranean)

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    The abundance of picoplanktonic marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus was measured at weekly intervals over a period of one year in the northern Levantine basin shelf waters. Synechococcuswas found more abundant during summer and early autumn and least during winter. Significant increases in abundances mostly occurred during very low nutrient concentrations either a week or two weeks after the nutrient enrichments. Cells were distributed homogenously in the water column due to intense mixing observed during winter. Despite the homogenous cell distribution attained during late autumn and winter, the magnitude of variation in cell abundances among depths was found greatest during August and September. Cell concentrations ranged from a minimum of 6.4 x 103 to a maximum of 9.2 x 104 cells ml-1 with an annual mean level of 2.5 x 104cells ml-1 at surface. Below the surface, it ranged from a minimum of 5.6 x 103 to a maximum of 8.0 x 104cells ml-1 with an annual mean level of 2.1 x 104 cells ml-1 at 25 m depth. Compared to surface and 25 m depth, lowest levels were attained at 50 m. At this depth, cell counts ranged from a minimum of 5.4 x 103to a maximum of 3.2 x 104 cells ml-1 with an annual mean level of 1.4 x 104 cells ml-1. Based on Pearson-product moment correlation analysis, a highly significant correlation between Synechococcusabundance and ambient temperature was observed

    Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel

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    An expression for the bit error rate of a multiple subcarrier intensity-modulated atmospheric optical communication system employing spatial diversity is derived. Spatial diversity is used to mitigate scintillation caused by atmospheric turbulence, which is assumed to obey lognormal distribution. Optimal but complex maximum ratio, equal gain combining (EGC) and relatively simple selection combining spatial diversity techniques in a clear atmosphere are considered. Each subcarrier is modulated using binary phase shift keying. Laser irradiance is subsequently modulated by a subcarrier signal, and a direct detection PIN receiver is employed (i.e. intensity modulation/direction detection). At a subcarrier level, coherent demodulation is used to extract the transmitted data/information. The performance of on–off-keying is also presented and compared with the subcarrier intensity modulation under the same atmospheric conditions

    Two New Species of the Genus Calanopia (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) from the Northern Levantine Basin (Mediterranean Sea)

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    Представлено иллюстрированное описание двух новых видов рода Calanopia — Calanopia levantina Uysal et Shmeleva, sp. n. и Calanopia metu Uysal et Shmeleva, sp. n., найденных в зоопланктонных пробах, взятых сетью Нансена в слое 0–100 м в прибрежных водах моря Леванта. С. levantina близка к С. minor A. Scott и С. aurivillii Cleve, но отличается от них строением и вооружением пятой пары плавательных ног, строением (структурой) рострума и др. С. metu отличается от других видов этого рода грубой, ребристой широкояйцевидной формой тела с короткими торакальными шипами и короткой как бы спрессованной уросомой.Two new species, Calanopia levantina Uysal et Shmeleva, sp. n. and Calanopia metu Uysal et Shmeleva, sp. n. are described and figured. These species were found in the zooplankton collected by the Nansen net at 0–100 m depth along Turkish coastal waters in the northern Levantine Basin. C. levantina is closely related to C. minor A. Scott and C. aurivillii Cleve but differs from other species of this genus mainly by the structure and armature of the fifth leg, the structure of rostrum, etc. C. metu differs from other species of this genus by the robust form, body-wide-ovoid cephalosome with short thoracic spines and a short compressed urosome

    Treatment Challenges in Pediatric Stroke Patients

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    Aim. In this study we presented our experience of 18 years on the etiology, risk factors, prophylactic and acute treatment, the effect of treatment to recurrence rate of patients with stroke. Methods. The population included 108 patients who had been treated for stroke at Pediatric Neurology Department of Ankara University with the diagnosis of arterial ischemic stroke and sinovenous thrombosis between January 1992 and August 2010. Forty-one girls (38%) and 67 boys (62%) with mean symptom age 3.1 ± 4.04 years, (0–18 years old) were followed up with a mean period of 4.9 ± 3.78 years (0–17 years). Results. 30 patients had no risk factors, 34 patients had only one risk factor and 44 patients had multiple risk factors. Recurrence was seen in three patients. There was no any statistical correlation between the recurrence of stroke and the existence of risk factors (P = .961). Seventeen patients received prophylactic treatment; 2 of them without any risk factors, 3 had one risk factor, 12 patients, who constituted the majority of our patients, had multiple risk factors (P = .024). Conclusion. With this study we showed that the right prophylaxis for right patients reduces the rate of recurrence

    Nickel’s Role in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Potential Involvement of microRNAs

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    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancer types with a limited overall survival rate due to the asymptomatic progression of symptoms in metastatic stages of the malignancy and the lack of an early reliable diagnostic biomarker. MicroRNAs (miRs/miRNAs) are small (~18–24 nucleotides), endogenous, non-coding RNAs, which are closely linked to the development of numerous malignancies comprising PDAC. Recent studies have described the role of environmental pollutants such as nickel (Ni) in PDAC, but the mechanisms of Ni-mediated toxicity in cancer are still not completely understood. Specifically, Ni has been found to alter the expression and function of miRs in several malignancies, leading to changes in target gene expression. In this study, we found that levels of Ni were significantly higher in cancerous tissue, thus implicating Ni in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Hence, in vitro studies followed by using both normal and pancreatic tumor cell lines and increasing Ni concentration increased lethality. Comparing LC50 values, Ni-acetate groups demonstrated lower values needed than in NiCl2 groups, suggesting greater Ni-acetate. Panc-10.05 cell line appeared the most sensitive to Ni compounds. Exposure to Ni-acetate resulted in an increased phospho-AKT, and decreased FOXO1 expression in Panc-10.05 cells, while NiCl2 also increased PTEN expression in Panc-10.05 cells. Specifically, following NiCl2 exposure to PDAC cells, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-155 were significantly upregulated, while the expression levels of miR-126 were significantly decreased. Hence, our study has suggested pilot insights to indicate that the environmental pollutant Ni plays an important role in the progression of PDAC by promoting an association between miRs and Ni exposure during PDAC pathogenesis

    Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Pyridazinones Containing the (2-Fluorophenyl) Piperazine Moiety as Selective MAO-B Inhibitors

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    Twelve pyridazinones (T1-T12) containing the (2-fluorophenyl) piperazine moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for monoamine oxidase (MAO) -A and -B inhibitory activities. T6 was found to be the most potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.013 µM, followed by T3 (IC50 = 0.039 µM). Inhibitory potency for MAO-B was more enhanced by meta bromo substitution (T6) than by para bromo substitution (T7). For para substitution, inhibitory potencies for MAO-B were as follows: -Cl (T3) > -N(CH3)2 (T12) > -OCH3 (T9) > Br (T7) > F (T5) > -CH3 (T11) > -H (T1). T6 and T3 efficiently inhibited MAO-A with IC50 values of 1.57 and 4.19 µM and had the highest selectivity indices (SIs) for MAO-B (120.8 and 107.4, respectively). T3 and T6 were found to be reversible and competitive inhibitors of MAO-B with Ki values of 0.014 and 0.0071, respectively. Moreover, T6 was less toxic to healthy fibroblast cells (L929) than T3. Molecular docking simulations with MAO binding sites returned higher docking scores for T6 and T3 with MAO-B than with MAO-A. These results suggest that T3 and T6 are selective, reversible, and competitive inhibitors of MAO-B and should be considered lead candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease

    Central obesity as a precursor to the metabolic syndrome in the AusDiab study and Mauritius

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    Evidence from epidemiologic studies that central obesity precedes future metabolic change and does not occur concurrently with the appearance of the blood pressure, glucose, and lipid abnormalities that characterize the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been lacking. Longitudinal surveys were conducted in Mauritius in 1987, 1992, and 1998, and in Australia in 2000 and 2005 (AusDiab). This analysis included men and women (aged 25 years) in three cohorts: AusDiab 2000&ndash;2005 (n = 5,039), Mauritius 1987&ndash;1992 (n = 2,849), and Mauritius 1987&ndash;1998 (n = 1,999). MetS components included waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) (representing insulin sensitivity). Linear regression was used to determine which baseline components predicted deterioration in other MetS components over 5 years in AusDiab and 5 and 11 years in Mauritius, adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic group. Baseline waist circumference predicted deterioration (P &lt; 0.01) in four of the other six MetS variables tested in AusDiab, five of six in Mauritius 1987&ndash;1992, and four of six in Mauritius 1987&ndash;1998. In contrast, an increase in waist circumference between baseline and follow-up was only predicted by insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) at baseline, and only in one of the three cohorts. These results suggest that central obesity plays a central role in the development of the MetS and appears to precede the appearance of the other MetS components.<br /

    The electric double layer has a life of its own

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    Using molecular dynamics simulations with recently developed importance sampling methods, we show that the differential capacitance of a model ionic liquid based double-layer capacitor exhibits an anomalous dependence on the applied electrical potential. Such behavior is qualitatively incompatible with standard mean-field theories of the electrical double layer, but is consistent with observations made in experiment. The anomalous response results from structural changes induced in the interfacial region of the ionic liquid as it develops a charge density to screen the charge induced on the electrode surface. These structural changes are strongly influenced by the out-of-plane layering of the electrolyte and are multifaceted, including an abrupt local ordering of the ions adsorbed in the plane of the electrode surface, reorientation of molecular ions, and the spontaneous exchange of ions between different layers of the electrolyte close to the electrode surface. The local ordering exhibits signatures of a first-order phase transition, which would indicate a singular charge-density transition in a macroscopic limit

    The C-terminal helical bundle of the tetrameric prokaryotic sodium channel accelerates the inactivation rate

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    Most tetrameric channels have cytosolic domains to regulate their functions, including channel inactivation. Here we show that the cytosolic C-terminal region of NavSulP, a prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channel cloned from Sulfitobacter pontiacus, accelerates channel inactivation. The crystal structure of the C-terminal region of NavSulP grafted into the C-terminus of a NaK channel revealed that the NavSulP C-terminal region forms a four-helix bundle. Point mutations of the residues involved in the intersubunit interactions of the four-helix bundle destabilized the tetramer of the channel and reduced the inactivation rate. The four-helix bundle was directly connected to the inner helix of the pore domain, and a mutation increasing the rigidity of the inner helix also reduced the inactivation rate. These findings suggest that the NavSulP four-helix bundle has important roles not only in stabilizing the tetramer, but also in accelerating the inactivation rate, through promotion of the conformational change of the inner helix

    WNT signalling in prostate cancer

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    Genome sequencing and gene expression analyses of prostate tumours have highlighted the potential importance of genetic and epigenetic changes observed in WNT signalling pathway components in prostate tumours-particularly in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer. WNT signalling is also important in the prostate tumour microenvironment, in which WNT proteins secreted by the tumour stroma promote resistance to therapy, and in prostate cancer stem or progenitor cells, in which WNT-β-catenin signals promote self-renewal or expansion. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential of inhibitors that target WNT receptor complexes at the cell membrane or that block the interaction of β-catenin with lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and the androgen receptor, in preventing prostate cancer progression. Some WNT signalling inhibitors are in phase I trials, but they have yet to be tested in patients with prostate cancer
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