25 research outputs found

    Control of (pre)-analytical aspects in immunoassay measurements of metabolic hormones in rodents

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    The measurement of circulating hormones by immunoassay remains a cornerstone in preclinical endocrine research. For scientists conducting and interpreting immunoassay measurements of rodent samples, the paramount aim usually is to obtain reliable and meaningful measurement data in order to draw conclusions on biological processes. However, the biological variability between samples is not the only variable affecting the readout of an immunoassay measurement and a considerable amount of unwanted or unintended variability can be quickly introduced during the pre-analytical and analytical phase. This review aims to increase the awareness for the factors 'pre-analytical' and 'analytical' variability particularly in the context of immunoassay measurement of circulating metabolic hormones in rodent samples. In addition, guidance is provided how to gain control over these variables and how to avoid common pitfalls associated with sample collection, processing, storage and measurement. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how to perform a basic validation of novel single and multiplex immunoassays for the measurement of metabolic hormones in rodents. Finally, practical examples from immunoassay measurements of plasma insulin in mice address the factors 'sampling site and inhalation anesthesia' as frequent sources of introducing an unwanted variability during the pre-analytical phase. The knowledge about the influence of both types of variability on the immunoassay measurement of circulating hormones as well as strategies to control these variables are crucial, on the one hand, for planning and realization of metabolic rodent studies and, on the other hand, for the generation and interpretation of meaningful immunoassay data from rodent samples

    9-PAHSA displays a weak anti-inflammatory potential mediated by specific antagonism of chemokine G protein-coupled receptors

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    Introduction: 9-PAHSA belongs to a class of endogenous mammalian bioactive lipids, fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA), that are present in circulation at nanomolar concentrations in mice and humans. Published preclinical data suggest beneficial effects of 9-PAHSA treatment on glucose metabolism as well as modulation of immune function. However, receptor molecules with high affinity towards these lipids have not been identified so far.Methods: In a broad screen of a panel of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) we discovered that 9-PAHSA displays antagonist activity with an IC50 in the micromolar range on selected chemokine receptors, namely, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5. The potential immunomodulatory activities in a human cellular model of innate immunity were then investigated.Results and discussion: In our in vitro experiments, a weak anti-inflammatory potential for high concentrations of 9-PAHSA (10–100 µM) could be detected, as treatment reduced the LPS-induced secretion of certain chemokines, such as CXCL10, MIP-1 beta and MCP. Regarding metabolic effects, we re-investigated 9-PAHSA on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in vitro and in mice confirming conclusions from our earlier study that FAHFAs lack glucoregulatory activity following an acute treatment. In conclusion, the specific interactions with a subset of chemokine receptors may contribute to weak anti-inflammatory properties of 9-PAHSA, but further studies are needed to confirm its in anti-inflammatory potential in vivo

    sj-docx-1-tpx-10.1177_01926233231164097 – Supplemental material for Investigation of the Proliferative Potential of FGF21 or FGF19 in Liver-Specific FGFR4-Deficient Mice

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    Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-tpx-10.1177_01926233231164097 for Investigation of the Proliferative Potential of FGF21 or FGF19 in Liver-Specific FGFR4-Deficient Mice by Kerstin Wäse, Thomas Bartels, Uwe Schwahn and Mostafa Kabiri in Toxicologic Pathology</p

    Evidence against a Beneficial Effect of Irisin in Humans

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    Brown adipose tissue has gained interest as a potential target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. Irisin is a newly identified hormone secreted from skeletal muscle enhancing browning of white fat cells, which improves systemic metabolism by increasing energy expenditure in mice. The discovery of irisin raised expectations of its therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases. However, the effect of irisin in humans is unclear. Analyses of genomic DNA, mRNA and expressed sequence tags revealed that FNDC5, the gene encoding the precursor of irisin, is present in rodents and most primates, but shows in humans a mutation in the conserved start codon ATG to ATA. HEK293 cells transfected with a human FNDC5 construct with ATA as start codon resulted in only 1% full-length protein compared to human FNDC5 with ATG. Additionally, in vitro contraction of primary human myotubes by electrical pulse stimulation induced a significant increase in PGC1a mRNA expression. However, FNDC5 mRNA level was not altered. FNDC5 mRNA expression in muscle biopsies from two different human exercise studies was not changed by endurance or strength training. Preadipocytes isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited differentiation to brite human adipocytes when incubated with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 7, but neither recombinant FNDC5 nor irisin were effective. In conclusion, our findings suggest that it is rather unlikely that the beneficial effect of irisin observed in mice can be translated to humans. © 2013 Raschke et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

    A siRNA mediated hepatic dpp4 knockdown affects lipid, but not glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.

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    Systemic inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (dpp4) represents an effective and established treatment option for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The current study investigated in mice if a liver selective knock-down of dpp4 by therapeutic siRNAs could be a novel, similarly effective treatment option for T2D. Furthermore, the potential effects on hepatic steatosis, inflammation and lipid metabolism were investigated after hepato-selective knock-down of dpp4. The knock-down efficiency and IC50 values of siRNAs targeting dpp4 were analyzed in PC3 cells. In two independent studies, either db/db mice or C57BL/6J mice were injected intravenously with a liposomal formulation of siRNAs targeting either dpp4 or a non-targeting control, followed by metabolically characterization. In comparator groups, additional cohorts of mice were treated with an oral dpp4 inhibitor. In both animal studies, we observed a robust knock-down (~75%) of hepatic dpp4 with a potent siRNA. Hepatic dpp4 knockdown did not significantly affect glucose metabolism or circulating incretin concentrations in both animal studies. However, in obese and diabetic db/db mice hepatic steatosis was reduced and hepatic mRNA expression of acaca, scd1, fasn and pparg was significantly lower after siRNA treatment. Systemic inhibition of the enzymatic dpp4 activity by an oral dpp4 inhibitor significantly improved glucose handling in db/db mice but did not affect hepatic endpoints. These data demonstrate that a targeted reduction of dpp4 expression in the liver may not be sufficient to improve whole-body glucose metabolism in obese and diabetic mice but may improve hepatic lipid metabolism