67 research outputs found

    Graph Neural Networks for Particle Reconstruction in High Energy Physics detectors

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    Pattern recognition problems in high energy physics are notably different from traditional machine learning applications in computer vision. Reconstruction algorithms identify and measure the kinematic properties of particles produced in high energy collisions and recorded with complex detector systems. Two critical applications are the reconstruction of charged particle trajectories in tracking detectors and the reconstruction of particle showers in calorimeters. These two problems have unique challenges and characteristics, but both have high dimensionality, high degree of sparsity, and complex geometric layouts. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are a relatively new class of deep learning architectures which can deal with such data effectively, allowing scientists to incorporate domain knowledge in a graph structure and learn powerful representations leveraging that structure to identify patterns of interest. In this work we demonstrate the applicability of GNNs to these two diverse particle reconstruction problems

    Graph Neural Networks for Particle Reconstruction in High Energy Physics detectors

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    Pattern recognition problems in high energy physics are notably different from traditional machine learning applications in computer vision. Reconstruction algorithms identify and measure the kinematic properties of particles produced in high energy collisions and recorded with complex detector systems. Two critical applications are the reconstruction of charged particle trajectories in tracking detectors and the reconstruction of particle showers in calorimeters. These two problems have unique challenges and characteristics, but both have high dimensionality, high degree of sparsity, and complex geometric layouts. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are a relatively new class of deep learning architectures which can deal with such data effectively, allowing scientists to incorporate domain knowledge in a graph structure and learn powerful representations leveraging that structure to identify patterns of interest. In this work we demonstrate the applicability of GNNs to these two diverse particle reconstruction problems.Comment: Presented at NeurIPS 2019 Workshop "Machine Learning and the Physical Sciences

    Track Seeding and Labelling with Embedded-space Graph Neural Networks

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    To address the unprecedented scale of HL-LHC data, the Exa.TrkX project is investigating a variety of machine learning approaches to particle track reconstruction. The most promising of these solutions, graph neural networks (GNN), process the event as a graph that connects track measurements (detector hits corresponding to nodes) with candidate line segments between the hits (corresponding to edges). Detector information can be associated with nodes and edges, enabling a GNN to propagate the embedded parameters around the graph and predict node-, edge- and graph-level observables. Previously, message-passing GNNs have shown success in predicting doublet likelihood, and we here report updates on the state-of-the-art architectures for this task. In addition, the Exa.TrkX project has investigated innovations in both graph construction, and embedded representations, in an effort to achieve fully learned end-to-end track finding. Hence, we present a suite of extensions to the original model, with encouraging results for hitgraph classification. In addition, we explore increased performance by constructing graphs from learned representations which contain non-linear metric structure, allowing for efficient clustering and neighborhood queries of data points. We demonstrate how this framework fits in with both traditional clustering pipelines, and GNN approaches. The embedded graphs feed into high-accuracy doublet and triplet classifiers, or can be used as an end-to-end track classifier by clustering in an embedded space. A set of post-processing methods improve performance with knowledge of the detector physics. Finally, we present numerical results on the TrackML particle tracking challenge dataset, where our framework shows favorable results in both seeding and track finding.Comment: Proceedings submission in Connecting the Dots Workshop 2020, 10 page

    Gleam: the GLAST Large Area Telescope Simulation Framework

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    This paper presents the simulation of the GLAST high energy gamma-ray telescope. The simulation package, written in C++, is based on the Geant4 toolkit, and it is integrated into a general framework used to process events. A detailed simulation of the electronic signals inside Silicon detectors has been provided and it is used for the particle tracking, which is handled by a dedicated software. A unique repository for the geometrical description of the detector has been realized using the XML language and a C++ library to access this information has been designed and implemented.Comment: 10 pages, Late

    Graph Neural Networks for Particle Reconstruction in High Energy Physics detectors

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    Pattern recognition problems in high energy physics are notably different from traditional machine learning applications in computer vision. Reconstruction algorithms identify and measure the kinematic properties of particles produced in high energy collisions and recorded with complex detector systems. Two critical applications are the reconstruction of charged particle trajectories in tracking detectors and the reconstruction of particle showers in calorimeters. These two problems have unique challenges and characteristics, but both have high dimensionality, high degree of sparsity, and complex geometric layouts. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are a relatively new class of deep learning architectures which can deal with such data effectively, allowing scientists to incorporate domain knowledge in a graph structure and learn powerful representations leveraging that structure to identify patterns of interest. In this work we demonstrate the applicability of GNNs to these two diverse particle reconstruction problems

    A population of gamma-ray emitting globular clusters seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

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    Globular clusters with their large populations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are believed to be potential emitters of high-energy gamma-ray emission. Our goal is to constrain the millisecond pulsar populations in globular clusters from analysis of gamma-ray observations. We use 546 days of continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to study the gamma-ray emission towards 13 globular clusters. Steady point-like high-energy gamma-ray emission has been significantly detected towards 8 globular clusters. Five of them (47 Tucanae, Omega Cen, NGC 6388, Terzan 5, and M 28) show hard spectral power indices (0.7<Γ<1.4)(0.7 < \Gamma <1.4) and clear evidence for an exponential cut-off in the range 1.0-2.6 GeV, which is the characteristic signature of magnetospheric emission from MSPs. Three of them (M 62, NGC 6440 and NGC 6652) also show hard spectral indices (1.0<Γ<1.7)(1.0 < \Gamma < 1.7), however the presence of an exponential cut-off can not be unambiguously established. Three of them (Omega Cen, NGC 6388, NGC 6652) have no known radio or X-ray MSPs yet still exhibit MSP spectral properties. From the observed gamma-ray luminosities, we estimate the total number of MSPs that is expected to be present in these globular clusters. We show that our estimates of the MSP population correlate with the stellar encounter rate and we estimate 2600-4700 MSPs in Galactic globular clusters, commensurate with previous estimates. The observation of high-energy gamma-ray emission from a globular cluster thus provides a reliable independent method to assess their millisecond pulsar populations that can be used to make constraints on the original neutron star X-ray binary population, essential for understanding the importance of binary systems in slowing the inevitable core collapse of globular clusters.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A. Corresponding authors: J. Kn\"odlseder, N. Webb, B. Pancraz

    Fermi Large Area Telescope Constraints on the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

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    The Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ~10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift- and energy-dependent attenuation of the gamma-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope onboard Fermi detects a sample of gamma-ray blazars with redshift up to z~3, and GRBs with redshift up to z~4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of gamma-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the gamma-ray opacity of the Universe at various energies and redshifts, and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. (2006) can be ruled out with high confidence.Comment: 42 pages, 12 figures, accepted version (24 Aug.2010) for publication in ApJ; Contact authors: A. Bouvier, A. Chen, S. Raino, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, L.C. Reye
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