101 research outputs found

    lincRNAs: Genomics, Evolution, and Mechanisms

    Get PDF
    Long intervening noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are transcribed from thousands of loci in mammalian genomes and might play widespread roles in gene regulation and other cellular processes. This Review outlines the emerging understanding of lincRNAs in vertebrate animals, with emphases on how they are being identified and current conclusions and questions regarding their genomics, evolution and mechanisms of action.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant GM067031

    Pathway redundancy and protein essentiality revealed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae interaction networks

    Get PDF
    The biological interpretation of genetic interactions is a major challenge. Recently, Kelley and Ideker proposed a method to analyze together genetic and physical networks, which explains many of the known genetic interactions as linking different pathways in the physical network. Here, we extend this method and devise novel analytic tools for interpreting genetic interactions in a physical context. Applying these tools on a large-scale Saccharomyces cerevisiae data set, our analysis reveals 140 between-pathway models that explain 3765 genetic interactions, roughly doubling those that were previously explained. Model genes tend to have short mRNA half-lives and many phosphorylation sites, suggesting that their stringent regulation is linked to pathway redundancy. We also identify ‘pivot' proteins that have many physical interactions with both pathways in our models, and show that pivots tend to be essential and highly conserved. Our analysis of models and pivots sheds light on the organization of the cellular machinery as well as on the roles of individual proteins

    Towards accurate imputation of quantitative genetic interactions

    Get PDF
    Recent technological breakthroughs have enabled high-throughput quantitative measurements of hundreds of thousands of genetic interactions among hundreds of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, these assays often fail to measure the genetic interactions among up to 40% of the studied gene pairs. Here we present a novel method, which combines genetic interaction data together with diverse genomic data, to quantitatively impute these missing interactions. We also present data on almost 190,000 novel interactions.Tel Aviv University. Edmond J, Safra Bioinformatics CenterIsrael Science Foundation (grant no. 802/08)Raymond and Beverley Sackler Foundatio

    MetaReg: a platform for modeling, analysis and visualization of biological systems using large-scale experimental data

    Get PDF
    A new computational tool is presented that allows the integration of high-throughput experimental results with the probabilistic modeling of previously obtained information about cellular systems. The tool (MetaReg) is demonstrated on the leucine biosynthesis system in S.cerevisiae

    From E-MAPs to module maps: dissecting quantitative genetic interactions using physical interactions

    Get PDF
    Recent technological breakthroughs allow the quantification of hundreds of thousands of genetic interactions (GIs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The interpretation of these data is often difficult, but it can be improved by the joint analysis of GIs along with complementary data types. Here, we describe a novel methodology that integrates genetic and physical interaction data. We use our method to identify a collection of functional modules related to chromosomal biology and to investigate the relations among them. We show how the resulting map of modules provides clues for the elucidation of function both at the level of individual genes and at the level of functional modules

    Extensive alternative polyadenylation during zebrafish development

    Get PDF
    The post-transcriptional fate of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is largely dictated by their 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs), which are defined by cleavage and polyadenylation (CPA) of pre-mRNAs. We used poly(A)-position profiling by sequencing (3P-seq) to map poly(A) sites at eight developmental stages and tissues in the zebrafish. Analysis of over 60 million 3P-seq reads substantially increased and improved existing 3′ UTR annotations, resulting in confidently identified 3′ UTRs for >79% of the annotated protein-coding genes in zebrafish. mRNAs from most zebrafish genes undergo alternative CPA, with those from more than a thousand genes using different dominant 3′ UTRs at different stages. These included one of the poly(A) polymerase genes, for which alternative CPA reinforces its repression in the ovary. 3′ UTRs tend to be shortest in the ovaries and longest in the brain. Isoforms with some of the shortest 3′ UTRs are highly expressed in the ovary, yet absent in the maternally contributed RNAs of the embryo, perhaps because their 3′ UTRs are too short to accommodate a uridine-rich motif required for stability of the maternal mRNA. At 2 h post-fertilization, thousands of unique poly(A) sites appear at locations lacking a typical polyadenylation signal, which suggests a wave of widespread cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNA degradation intermediates. Our insights into the identities, formation, and evolution of zebrafish 3′ UTRs provide a resource for studying gene regulation during vertebrate development.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant GM067031)

    Different sets of QTLs influence fitness variation in yeast

    Get PDF
    We have carried out a combination of in-lab-evolution (ILE) and congenic crosses to identify the gene sets that contribute to the ability of yeast cells to survive under alkali stress.Each selected line acquired a different set of mutations, all resulting in the same phenotype. We identified a total of 15 genes in ILE and 17 candidates in the congenic approach, and studied their individual contribution to the phenotype.The total additive effect of the QTLs was much larger than the difference between the ancestor and the evolved strains, suggesting epistatic interactions between the QTLs.None of the genes identified encode structural components of the pH machinery. Instead, most encode regulatory functions, such as ubiquitin ligases, chromatin remodelers, GPI anchoring and copper/iron sensing transcription factors

    SPIKE – a database, visualization and analysis tool of cellular signaling pathways

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Biological signaling pathways that govern cellular physiology form an intricate web of tightly regulated interlocking processes. Data on these regulatory networks are accumulating at an unprecedented pace. The assimilation, visualization and interpretation of these data have become a major challenge in biological research, and once met, will greatly boost our ability to understand cell functioning on a systems level.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>To cope with this challenge, we are developing the SPIKE knowledge-base of signaling pathways. SPIKE contains three main software components: 1) A database (DB) of biological signaling pathways. Carefully curated information from the literature and data from large public sources constitute distinct tiers of the DB. 2) A visualization package that allows interactive graphic representations of regulatory interactions stored in the DB and superposition of functional genomic and proteomic data on the maps. 3) An algorithmic inference engine that analyzes the networks for novel functional interplays between network components.</p> <p>SPIKE is designed and implemented as a community tool and therefore provides a user-friendly interface that allows registered users to upload data to SPIKE DB. Our vision is that the DB will be populated by a distributed and highly collaborative effort undertaken by multiple groups in the research community, where each group contributes data in its field of expertise.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The integrated capabilities of SPIKE make it a powerful platform for the analysis of signaling networks and the integration of knowledge on such networks with <it>omics </it>data. </p
    corecore