111 research outputs found

    Trend of Microcredit in Bangladesh: A Study on Government and Non-Government Institutions and Banks.

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    The microcredit movement began as an action-research by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yunus has quickly become a global phenomenon, attracting more than 100 million borrowers world-wide. This program started mid-eighties and their activities increased noticeably higher after 1990. Although non-banking institutions involved in micro finance activities in earlier now nationalized commercial banks, specialized banks and private commercial banks have also started this program in different forms. The study has found that the number of licensed microcredit institutions and their branches are incising year to year. Number of borrowers was 18.89 million in 2009 which become 23.11 million in 2016. In this period the amount of disbursed loan increased by 155.17% (BDT 306.72 billion to BDT 782.67 billion) which is a notable evidence for the growth of this sector. The micro financing of the nationalized and private commercial banks is also found in increasing trend. Up to 2002 the public commercial and specialized banks are distributed BDT 11237.19 crore and this cumulative amount is become BDT 32822.17 crore up to June 2016. Keywords: Microcredit, Growth, Banks, Microfinance institutions. DOI: 10.7176/JESD/10-3-1

    Test of Weak Form of Efficiency in Emerging Markets: A South Asian Evidence

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    This study examines the weak form of efficiency of three South Asian markets named as Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE), Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) for a period between January 2000 to June 2010. Data used in the study is monthly closing values of the indices of the said exchanges. The study uses autocorrelation test, unit root tests, co-integration test and Granger causality test to examine the efficiency of the markets. Empirical result reveals that the returns do not follow normal distribution and the distributions are leptokurtic. Autocorrelation and unit root tests imply that the data series are stationary. Johansen co-integration test indicates that there is common stochastic trend shared by the markets. Granger causality test implies that the knowledge of the past return behavior in one market is unlikely to improve forecasts of returns of another market with some exceptions. So tests result implies that the markets are not weak form of efficient

    Determinants of Selecting Country-Of-Origin (COO) as an Ingredient of Sourcing Strategy: Evidence from an Emerging Economy

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    Bangladesh, an emerging economy with substantial dependence on import, necessitated her businesses to formulate international sourcing strategy. The study focuses on Bangladeshi retailers’ and wholesalers’ contemplations to choose country-of-origin (COO) as a part of their sourcing strategy. Retailers and wholesalers, dealing with ceramic tiles and sanitary wares and also undertake international sourcing activities, are the respondents of this study. Multiple regression analysis generated adjusted R2 of 0.95, and identifies five significant factors responsible for deciding source country origin. Minimum possible price offer, quick adjustment with importers’ specifications, consumers’ positive impression about the country, source country’s ability to provide variety, and keeping promise of delivery time and quantity are the variables in the regression model. The significant variables have also been checked for the problem of multicollinearity. Hence, the findings of this study add value to the existing body of COO literature.

    Recycling and reuse of kitchen waste for sustainable agriculture and as renewable energy in north-eastern Bangladesh

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    Unbalanced use of inorganic nutrients is the main cause for stagnation or declining crop productivity; this also causes health hazards in different forms. Usually huge quantities of vegetables, fishes, meats, and bones remain unutilized or thrown away as wastes in daily household affairs. However, kitchen wastes can also be used in productive manners. The ways and means of this endeavor has been addressed in this communication. The kitchen-waste based organic fertilizer has been developed by digging pits and placing the wastes on a layer of soil, topped by a layer of plant growth-promoting microbes. Almost 25% of compost was harvested by this manner in small scale in Sylhet division (North-Eastern Bangladesh) under the auspicious of livelihood enhancement program. The main objectives were achieved by converting waste into resource, finding an alternative nutrient source for agricultural production, improving soil health and converting recycle elements to natural resources. Also, organic agriculture induced significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. At present, we are planning to produce consumable energy from kitchen wastes. Preliminary studies inspire optimism about their commercial usage, entrepreneurship for youths and improvement of environment. Finally, it is assuming that there are huge scope of application of kitchen wastes under the integrated solid waste management (ISWM) programs with its 4 R’s principle i.e. reduce, reuse, recycle and recovery of the waste with collection from both rural and urban areas for effective use for soil fertility and power energy development as a potential renewable energy source

    Heat transfer analysis for falkner-skan boundary layer flow past a stationary wedge with slips boundary conditions considering temperature-dependent thermal conductivity

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    We studied the problem of heat transfer for Falkner-Skan boundary layer flow past a stationary wedge with momentum and thermal slip boundary conditions and the temperature dependent thermal conductivity. The governing partial differential equations for the physical situation are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations using scaling group of transformations. These are then numerically solved using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order numerical method. The momentum slip parameter δ leads to increase in the dimensionless velocity and the rate of heat transfer whilst it decreases the dimensionless temperature and the friction factor. The thermal slip parameter leads to the decrease rate of heat transfer as well as the dimensionless temperature. The dimensionless velocity, rate of heat transfer and the friction factor increase with the Falkner-Skan power law parameter m but the dimensionless fluid temperature decreases with m. The dimensionless fluid temperature and the heat transfer rate decrease as the thermal conductivity parameter A increases. Good agreements are found between the numerical results of the present paper with published results

    CSR in major European football leagues in the age of COVID-19: financial vulnerability, mental health and domestic violence

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    Purpose COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the lives of people and businesses around the world in different ways. France, Spain, Italy and the UK are among the worst affected countries by this pandemic. The purpose of this paper is to identify and compare different corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities taken by the clubs and player of the major football leagues of these four countries to develop a more comprehensive model of intervention. Design/methodology/approach This paper has analyzed the initiatives taken by these football clubs and players to address financial vulnerabilities, mental health problems and domestic violence among the stakeholders and compared them with the existing CSR and humanitarian models. A case study approach has been used to collect and analyze data related to the CSR activities taken by the players and club management. Official websites of the clubs, newspaper and journal articles were among the major sources used to collect data for the paper. Findings Football clubs and players of the four major leagues have raised funds through different campaigns and delivered foods and essential medical supplies to the communities and hospitals to address financial vulnerabilities, mental health issues and domestic violence within their communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. They have provided guidance to their followers using social and television media to improve their physical and mental health during the pandemic. Online competitions, quizzes or virtual hangouts have also been used by the players to engage the stakeholders on a frequent basis. Football clubs have also initiated campaigns to raise awareness within the community on available medical services for the victims of domestic violence and also provided them with shelter, food, medical, legal and online counseling services. Originality/value Football clubs and players of the major leagues were always at the forefront to help the communities and hospitals to address issues related to mental health problems, financial vulnerabilities and domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of this paper could help and guide other entities in designing a more comprehensive model of CSR interventions during pandemics or crisis situations to address financial vulnerabilities, mental health problems and domestic violence within their communities.©2022 Emerald Publishing Limited. This manuscript version is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution–NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY–NC 4.0) license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Effect of Integrated Rice-Duck Farming on Rice Yield, Farm Productivity, and Rice-Provisioning Ability of Farmers

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    The feasibility of the rice-duck system of rice production, practiced in some East Asian countries, is studied in Bangladesh as a sub-project of the Poverty Elimination Through Rice Research Assistance (PETRRA). The Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) implements the sub-project in collaboration with two NGOs, FIVDB and BDS, in the northeastern (greater Sylhet) and southern (Barisal) regions of the country. Each demonstration trial, conducted in the field of the farmers, is treated as a replication. In these trials, the rice-duck system is compared with the methods of growing rice solely, as traditionally practiced by the farmers in Bangladesh. Evaluation of the activities carried out under the PETRRA sub-project shows that the rice-duck system is not only feasible, but also economically rewarding for the farmers. The yield of rice is, on average, 20% higher in the rice-duck system than the traditional rice system (sole rice), thereby ensuring about 50% higher net return and rice-provisioning ability. The ducks in the rice-duck fields control weeds and insects very effectively; as a consequence, labor and pesticide costs for controlling weeds and insects are minimized and the soil health is improved. The ducks provide another source of added income for the farmers. In view of the favorable results obtained in the study, it might be suggested that the rice-duck system be spread throughout the country as an income-generating activity for the resource-poor farmers

    ESTIMATION OF ALKALOIDS AND PHENOLICS OF FIVE EDIBLE CUCURBITACEOUS PLANTS AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

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    Objective: Objective of the present work was qualitative and quantitative estimation of alkaloids and phenolics of five edible cucurbitaceous plants and to evaluate their antibacterial activity against some human pathogenic bacteria.Methods: Total alkaloid present was determined by acid-based titrimetric methods using methyl red as an indicator and observing a faint yellow end point. Total phenolics were estimated by follin-ciocaltue's method using tannic acid as standard. Antibacterial activity was determined by Disc diffusion method using SRL Agar medium. The 70% ethanolic dried powdered was dissolved in 20% DMSO at different concentration to carry out the anti-microbial activity.Results: It was found that all the experimental plants contained almost equal amount of alkaloids but their phenolic contents as tannic acid equivalents were different. Alkaloids content of five Cucurbitaceous plants were found to vary from 1.15 g % to 1.34 g % and phenol content was varied from 4.54 mg/g to 10.13 mg/g. All the selected Cucurbitaceous plants were active against the tested pathogens, except against V. cholerae non.0139 (L4). Only the 70% ethanolic leaf extract of Momordica charantia (Linn.) showed a relative percentage inhibition from 15.02 to 16.63. So, Momordica charantia (Linn.) extract was the most active among five selected plants against the tested pathogens.Conclusion: The activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids and phenols. However, the extent of activity or zone of inhibition was found varied for different extracts might be due to the difference in the constituents present in the plant extracts

    Numerical solution of bio-nano-convection transport from a horizontal plate with blowing and multiple slip effects

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    In this paper, a new bio-nano-transport model is presented. The effects of first and second order velocity slips, thermal slip, mass slip, and gyro-tactic (torque-responsive) microorganism slip of bioconvectivenanofluid flow from amoving plate under blowing phenomenon are numerically examined. The flow model is expressed by partial differential equations which areconverted to a similar boundary value problem bysimilarity transformations. The boundary value problem is converted to a system of nonlinear equationswhich are then solved by a Matlab nonlinear equation solver fsolveintegrated with a Matlab ODEsolverode15s. The effects of selected control parameters (first order slip, second order slip, thermal slip, microorganism slip, blowing, nanofluid parameters) on the non-dimensional velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction, density ofmotile micro-organism, skin friction coefficient, heat transfer rate, mass flux of nanoparticles andmass fluxof microorganismsare analyzed. Our analysis reveals that a higher blowing parameter enhances micro-organism propulsion, flow velocityand nano-particle concentration, and increases the associated boundary layerthicknesses. A higher wall slip parameter enhances mass transfer and accelerates the flow. The MATLAB computations have been rigorously validated with the second-order accurate finite difference Nakamura tri-diagonal method.The current study is relevant to microbial fuel cell technologies which combine nanofluid transport, bioconvection phenomena and furthermore finds applications in nano-biomaterials sheetprocessing systems
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