49 research outputs found

    El enjambre sub-vertical de diques de lamprófido de Aiguablava (Cadenas Costero-Catalanas): petrología y composición

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    En este trabajo presentamos un estudio petrol√≥gico detallado de algunos de los diques de lampr√≥fido sub-verticales de edad P√©rmica del complejo intrusivo de Aiguablava (Cadenas Costero Catalanas). Aportamos nuevos datos composicionales, tanto en minerales (elementos mayores) como en roca total (elementos mayores y traza), de algunos de los diques m√°s inalterados. Del estudio realizado se deduce que todos los magmas lamprof√≠dicos estudiados tienen un origen com√ļn, si bien presentan un peque√Īo rango de fraccionamiento, en el que diferenciamos tres etapas relacionadas con tres pulsos magm√°ticos. Seg√ļn nuestros datos, algunos de los diques considerados anteriormente como espesartitas de afinidad calco-alcalina podr√≠an tener una afinidad transicional (de subalcalina a alcalina

    Olivine major and trace element compositions coupled with spinel chemistry to unravel the magmatic systems feeding monogenetic basaltic volcanoes

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    Monogenetic basaltic volcanic systems, despite their considerable smaller size and shorter lifetime compared to polygenetic volcanoes, can have complex pre-eruptive histories and composite volcanic facies architectures. Their source-to-surface investigation is essential for our better understanding of monogenetic volcanism and requires high-resolution mineral-scale analyses. In this study, we focus on diversely zoned olivine crystals and their spinel inclusions from alkaline basaltic volcanics that are the result of mixing of numerous magmas, crystals and fragments of various origins. The Fekete-hegy volcanic complex is one of the largest and most composite eruptive centers in the intracontinental monogenetic Bakony‚ÄďBalaton Highland Volcanic Field (western Pannonian Basin, Eastern Central Europe). It is a compound multi-vent system built up by multiple eruption episodes: initial maar-forming phreatomagmatic eruptions were followed by massive lava flows and magmatic explosive activity. We performed stratigraphically controlled sampling in order to reveal the history of the successively erupted magma batches represented by the distinct eruptive units, as well as to discover the petrogenetic processes that controlled the evolution of the magmatic system. The juvenile pyroclasts of the phreatomagmatic eruption products (unit 1) contain a remarkably diverse mineral assemblage including five different olivine types and three distinct spinel groups. In addition, they comprise various xenoliths. Based on detailed textural investigations combined with in situ electron microprobe analyses, high-resolution laser ablation ICP-MS trace element mapping and single spot measurements on the variably zoned olivines of unit 1 samples, eight distinct environments are inferred to have been involved in their formation. Four of these environments account for the significant compositional variation of the olivine-hosted spinel inclusions. A complex set of open- and closed-system petrogenetic processes operated during the evolution of the magmatic system: magma stalling, accumulation, storage, fractionation, mixing, replenishments, cumulate remobilization, incorporation of foreign fragments and crystals from the wall rocks. All these diverse environments and processes resulted in the mixed character of the erupted magmas during the initial phreatomagmatic eruptive phase. In contrast, the uniform petrological features and the small variations shown by the olivines and spinels from unit 2‚Äź‚Äď3 indicate that the later magmatic explosive ‚Äď effusive phase was preceded by a considerable change in the magmatic system; it experienced a simple evolution through olivine + spinel fractional crystallization without any of the complexities seen during the initial phase. The present study emphasizes the importance of high-resolution mineral-scale textural and chemical investigations to unravel the complexity of the sub-volcanic magmatic systems feeding monogenetic basaltic volcanoes. Compared to the application of whole-rock geochemistry alone, this approach enables a direct and more detailed insight into the architecture and evolution of these systems

    AERYN: A simple standalone application for visualizing and enhancing elemental maps

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    International audienceInterpretation of high spatial resolution elemental mineral maps can be hindered by high frequency fluctuations, as well as by strong naturally-occurring or analytically-induced variations. We have developed a new standalone program named AERYN (Aspect Enhancement by Removing Yielded Noise) to produce more reliable element distribution maps from previously reduced geochemical data. The program is Matlab-based, designed with a graphic user interface and is capable of rapidly generating elemental maps from data acquired by a range of analytical techniques. A visual interface aids selection of appropriate outlier rejection and drift-correction parameters, thereby facilitating recognition of subtle elemental fluctuations which may otherwise be obscured. Examples of use are provided for quantitative trace element maps acquired using both laser ablation (LA-) ICP-MS and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. We demonstrate how AERYN allows recognition of high frequency elemental fluctuations, including those which occur perpendicular to the maximum concentration gradient. Such data treatment compliments commonly used processing methods to provide greater flexibility and control in producing elemental maps from micro-analytical techniques

    Quantitative data extraction from orthopyroxene trace element maps and its potential to examine the formation of the UG2 unit, Bushveld complex

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    We present a mineral chemical stratigraphy across the UG2 Unit, situated in the Upper Critical Zone of the Bushveld Complex. The magmatic evolution of the rocks hosting this world-class ore deposit for chromium and platinum group elements (PGEs) is still under debate. Orthopyroxene is a common phase across the magmatic stratigraphy of the unit. It hosts trace metals, whose relative contents can record information about magmatic processes. This study determined laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) trace element data for orthopyroxene and spot LA multi-collector ICP-MS Sr-isotope data for plagioclase. Mapping of trace element distributions revealed internal zoning in Cr, V, Y, and Th. Unlike in conventional spot analysis, quantitative trace element concentrations were extracted post-analysis from two-dimensional LA-ICP-MS maps. This approach offered advantages over spot analysis. The maps revealed internal complexities (e.g., inclusions, exsolved phases, zonations and diffusion halos) that could be avoided with suitable thresholds for chemical filter elements (i.e., 100 ppm < Cr < 4000 ppm, Y < 6 ppm), permitting fast, automated extraction of pure orthopyroxene data pixels from elemental maps covering noritic, troctolitic, anorthositic and chromititic mineral assemblages. Diffusive equilibration in orthopyroxene was evaluated by comparing zonations in elements with different known diffusivities. Magnesium and Ni are homogenously distributed, indicative of rapid diffusive processes, while Cr and V show zonations, interpreted to largely reflect primary distribution. Thorium and Y apparently diffused along discrete pathways, indicated by concentration anomalies following orthopyroxene lamellae. A systematic study of the trace element inventory of orthopyroxene across the succession of the UG2 Unit, complemented with Sr isotope signatures of plagioclase, revealed clear evidence for open-system processes: compatible elements (Cr, Ni) are decoupled from Mg# variations in orthopyroxene from specific UG2 subunits; distinct Mg# peaks coincide with negative V excursions in orthopyroxene from chromite-bearing subunits; towards the top of the unit, plagioclase shows a distinct Sr/ Sr peak and orthopyroxene shows Cr-depleted and Th-enriched rims. These chemical features cannot be explained by crystal mixing alone and argue for the involvement of at least two chemically distinct melts in the formation of the studied UG2 section