753 research outputs found

    The Sudbury Structure (Ontario, Canada) and Vredefort Structure (South Africa): A comparison

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    Both the Sudbury Structure (SS) and the Witwatersrand Basin surrounding the Vredefort Structure (VS) host some of the most important base and precious metal deposits on earth. In both structures Precambrian igneous, sedimentary and volcanic rocks were affected by the structure forming process, either meteorite impact or endogenic explosion, or as some VS workers propose, by high strain tectonics. Besides these general features there are some geological and geophysical characteristics that are strikingly similar in both structures. There are, however, some obvious differences. Directly related to the structure forming processes are breccias in the footwall rocks of both structures. Pseudotachylite breccias occurring in both structures display great similarities. Chemical and physical characteristics of the pseudotachylites are similar in both structures. Both structures are characterized by overturned collar rocks, not evident everywhere around the SS. The VS is rimmed by an up or overturned collar of sediments and volcanics of the Witwatersrand, Ventersdorp and Transvaal Supergroups. Drilling information proved that the strata of the Witwatersrand Supergroup in the south of the VS are lying horizontally. Shockmetamorphic features such as planar microdeformations in rock forming minerals and shatter cones are present in both structures in the footwall rocks and in the SS also in the breccias of the OF. Both structures have large geophysical anomalies associated with them. In both structures the anomalies were interpreted as being caused by mafic-ultramafic complexes underlying the structures

    First verbs : On the way to mini-paradigms

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    This 18th issue of ZAS-Papers in Linguistics consists of papers on the development of verb acquisition in 9 languages from the very early stages up to the onset of paradigm construction. Each of the 10 papers deals with first-Ianguage developmental processes in one or two children studied via longitudinal data. The languages involved are French, Spanish, Russian, Croatian, Lithuanien, Finnish, English and German. For German two different varieties are examined, one from Berlin and one from Vienna. All papers are based on presentations at the workshop 'Early verbs: On the way to mini-paradigms' held at the ZAS (Berlin) on the 30./31. of September 2000. This workshop brought to a close the first phase of cooperation between two projects on language acquisition which has started in October 1999: a) the project on "Syntaktische Konsequenzen des Morphologieerwerbs" at the ZAS (Berlin) headed by Juergen Weissenborn and Ewald Lang, and financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and b) the international "Crosslinguistic Project on Pre- and Protomorphology in Language Acquisition" coordinated by Wolfgang U. Dressler in behalf of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    The Emergence of Morphology - a Constructivist Approach

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    On the Typology of Inflection Class Systems

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    Inflectional classes are a property of the ideal inflecting-fusional language type. Thus strongly inflecting languages have the most complex vertical and horizontal stratification of hierarchical tree structures. Weakly inflecting languages which also approach the ideal isolating type or languages which also approach the agglutinating type have much shallower structures. Such properties follow from principles of Natural Morphology and from the distinction of the descendent hierarchy of macroclasses, classes, subclasses, subsubclasses etc. and homogeneous microclasses. The main languages of illustration are Latin, Lithuanian, Russian, German, French, Finnish, Hungarian and Turkish

    First tentative conclusions on the early development of verb morphology

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    In these conclusions we can deal only with some of the tentative comparative results of the workshop papers on the early development of verb morphology. The main focus is on criteria of how the child detects morphology and how this emerging morphological competence develops in its earliest phases. In view of the purpose and tentative character of these conclusions, all references will be limited to the papers of the workshop and to earlier studies by workshop participants within the "Crosslinguistic Project on Pre- and Protomorphology in Language Acquisition". Much more will be given in the projected final publication

    A contrastive analysis of verbal inflection classes in Polish and Croatian

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    The main goals of this contribution are 1) to propose and to illustrate a new model of identifying inflection classes, which is based on inflectional productivity, 2) to show the importance of language contact studies for the identification of productivity, 3) to elaborate on the consequences for contrastive typology, 4) to define and contrast morphological richness of two closely cognate languages: Polish and Croatian

    A contrastive analysis of verbal inflection classes in Polish and Croatian

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    The main goals of this contribution are 1) to propose and to illustrate a new model of identifying inflection classes, which is based on inflectional productivity, 2) to show the importance of language contact studies for the identification of productivity, 3) to elaborate on the consequences for contrastive typology, 4) to define and contrast morphological richness of two closely cognate languages: Polish and Croatian

    The role of E+A and post-starburst galaxies – II. Spectral energy distributions and comparison with observations

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    ‘The definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com '. Copyright Royal Astronomical Society. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15036.xIn a previous paper, we have shown that the classical definition of E+A galaxies excludes a significant number of post-starburst galaxies. We suggested that analysing broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) is a more comprehensive method to select and distinguish post-starburst galaxies than the classical definition of measuring equivalent widths of (Hδ) and [O ii] lines. In this paper, we will carefully investigate this new method and evaluate it by comparing our model grid of post-starburst galaxies to observed E+A galaxies from the MORPHS catalogue. In the first part, we investigate the UV-optical-NIR (near-infrared) SEDs of a large variety in terms of progenitor galaxies, burst strengths and time-scales of post-starburst models and compare them to undisturbed spiral, S0 and E galaxies as well as to galaxies in their starburst phase. In the second part, we compare our post-starburst models with the observed E+A galaxies in terms of Lick indices, luminosities and colours. We then use the new method of comparing the model SEDs with SEDs of the observed E+A galaxies. We find that the post-starburst models can be distinguished from undisturbed spiral, S0 and E galaxies and galaxies in their starburst phase on the basis of their SEDs. It is even possible to distinguish most of the different post-starbursts by their SEDs. From the comparison with observations, we find that all observed E+A galaxies from the MORPHS catalogue can be matched by our models. However, only models with short decline time-scales for the star formation rate are possible scenarios for the observed E+A galaxies in agreement with our results from the first paper.Peer reviewe

    Morphonology: the dinamics of derivation / Wolfgang U. Dressler

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