2,944 research outputs found

    Evaluating coasean bargaining experiments with meta-analysis

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    While the Coase Theorem has been a touchstone for understanding bargaining behavior, it has also been criticized for relying on unrealistic assumptions. In response, a line of experimental research analyzes bargaining behavior in laboratory settings. This paper uses meta-analysis to evaluate the Coasean bargaining literature by modeling the probability of an efficient bargain as a function of: (1) measures of transaction costs and related variables, and (2) measures of the social dimensions of a bargain. Results suggest that efficient solutions are more likely when explicit transaction costs do not exist, in the absence of a binding time limit, and when participants have perfect information on payoff schedules. Social dimension variables are found to have the potential to affect bargaining outcomes and are an important avenue for further research.Coase Theorem

    The Age Evolution of the Radio Morphology of Supernova Remnants

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    Recent hydrodynamical models of supernova remnants (SNRs) demonstrate that their evolution depends heavily on the inhomogeneities of the surrounding medium. As SNRs expand, their morphologies are influenced by the non-uniform and turbulent structure of their environments, as reflected in their radio continuum emission. In this paper, we measure the asymmetries of 96 SNRs in radio continuum images from three surveys of the Galactic plane and compare these results to the SNRs' radii, which we use as a proxy for their age. We find that larger (older) SNRs are more elliptical/elongated and more mirror asymmetric than smaller (younger) SNRs, though the latter vary in their degrees of asymmetry. This result suggests that SNR shells become more asymmetric as they sweep up the interstellar medium (ISM), as predicted in hydrodynamical models of SNRs expanding in a multi-phase or turbulent ISM.Comment: 16 pages, 5 figures, accepted by ApJ; sample expanded from 22 to 96 source

    Genome-Wide Transposon Screen of a Pseudomonas syringae mexB Mutant Reveals the Substrates of Efflux Transporters.

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    Bacteria express numerous efflux transporters that confer resistance to diverse toxicants present in their environment. Due to a high level of functional redundancy of these transporters, it is difficult to identify those that are of most importance in conferring resistance to specific compounds. The resistance-nodulation-division (RND) protein family is one such example of redundant transporters that are widespread among Gram-negative bacteria. Within this family, the MexAB-OprM protein complex is highly expressed and conserved among Pseudomonas species. We exposed barcoded transposon mutant libraries in isogenic wild-type and ΔmexB backgrounds in P. syringae B728a to diverse toxic compounds in vitro to identify mutants with increased susceptibility to these compounds. Mutants with mutations in genes encoding both known and novel redundant transporters but with partially overlapping substrate specificities were observed in a ΔmexB background. Psyr_0228, an uncharacterized member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters, preferentially contributes to tolerance of acridine orange and acriflavine. Another transporter located in the inner membrane, Psyr_0541, contributes to tolerance of acriflavine and berberine. The presence of multiple redundant, genomically encoded efflux transporters appears to enable bacterial strains to tolerate a diversity of environmental toxins. This genome-wide screen performed in a hypersusceptible mutant strain revealed numerous transporters that would otherwise be dispensable under these conditions. Bacterial strains such as P. syringae that likely encounter diverse toxins in their environment, such as in association with many different plant species, probably benefit from possessing multiple redundant transporters that enable versatility with respect to toleration of novel toxicants.IMPORTANCE Bacteria use protein pumps to remove toxic compounds from the cell interior, enabling survival in diverse environments. These protein pumps can be highly redundant, making their targeted examination difficult. In this study, we exposed mutant populations of Pseudomonas syringae to diverse toxicants to identify pumps that contributed to survival in those conditions. In parallel, we examined pump redundancy by testing mutants of a population lacking the primary efflux transporter responsible for toxin tolerance. We identified partial substrate overlap for redundant transporters, as well as several pumps that appeared more substrate specific. For bacteria that are found in diverse environments, having multiple, partially redundant efflux pumps likely allows flexibility in habitat colonization

    Profiling risk factors for chronic uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a new model for EHR-based research.

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    BackgroundJuvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in children. Chronic uveitis is a common and serious comorbid condition of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, with insidious presentation and potential to cause blindness. Knowledge of clinical associations will improve risk stratification. Based on clinical observation, we hypothesized that allergic conditions are associated with chronic uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.MethodsThis study is a retrospective cohort study using Stanford's clinical data warehouse containing data from Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from 2000-2011 to analyze patient characteristics associated with chronic uveitis in a large juvenile idiopathic arthritis cohort. Clinical notes in patients under 16 years of age were processed via a validated text analytics pipeline. Bivariate-associated variables were used in a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race. Previously reported associations were evaluated to validate our methods. The main outcome measure was presence of terms indicating allergy or allergy medications use overrepresented in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients with chronic uveitis. Residual text features were then used in unsupervised hierarchical clustering to compare clinical text similarity between patients with and without uveitis.ResultsPreviously reported associations with uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients (earlier age at arthritis diagnosis, oligoarticular-onset disease, antinuclear antibody status, history of psoriasis) were reproduced in our study. Use of allergy medications and terms describing allergic conditions were independently associated with chronic uveitis. The association with allergy drugs when adjusted for known associations remained significant (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.22-5.4).ConclusionsThis study shows the potential of using a validated text analytics pipeline on clinical data warehouses to examine practice-based evidence for evaluating hypotheses formed during patient care. Our study reproduces four known associations with uveitis development in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients, and reports a new association between allergic conditions and chronic uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

    Diversity and Corporate Performance: A Review of the Psychological Literature

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    This Article examines two approaches to diversity management in the context of procedural justice theory: 1) maximizing the benefit of diversity in the workplace and 2) minimizing any potential harm. With regard to the former, this Article argues that the application of procedural justice theory will create conditions under which employees of all backgrounds feel comfortable contributing their unique perspectives, thus maximizing the benefits of diversity. Applying procedural justice theory may also reduce potential conflicts arising from a diverse workforce by encouraging non-prejudiced, respectful behavior and strengthening organizational identity. As a test of these principles, a data set of 2,366 employees is examined. These data show that procedural justice principles promote better productivity among both white and black employees. Thus, procedural justice may be an important tool in diversity management

    IL-15 sustains IL-7R-independent ILC2 and ILC3 development

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    The signals that maintain tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in different microenvironments are incompletely understood. Here we show that IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) is not strictly required for the development of any ILC subset, as residual cells persist in the small intestinal lamina propria (siLP) of adult and neonatal Il7ra(−/−) mice. Il7ra(−/−) ILC2 primarily express an ST2(−) phenotype, but are not inflammatory ILC2. CCR6(+) ILC3, which express higher Bcl-2 than other ILC3, are the most abundant subset in Il7ra(−/−) siLP. All ILC subsets are functionally competent in vitro, and are sufficient to provide enhanced protection to infection with C. rodentium. IL-15 equally sustains wild-type and Il7ra(−/−) ILC survival in vitro and compensates for IL-7R deficiency, as residual ILCs are depleted in mice lacking both molecules. Collectively, these data demonstrate that siLP ILCs are not completely IL-7R dependent, but can persist partially through IL-15 signalling

    The human fear-circuitry and fear-induced fainting in healthy individuals The paleolithic-threat hypothesis

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    The Paleolithic-Threat hypothesis reviewed here posits that habitual efferent fainting can be traced back to fear-induced allelic polymorphisms that were selected into some genomes of anatomically, mitochondrially, and neurally modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) in the Mid-Paleolithic because of the survival advantage they conferred during periods of inescapable threat. We posit that during Mid-Paleolithic warfare an encounter with “a stranger holding a sharp object” was consistently associated with threat to life. A heritable hard- wired or firm-wired (prepotentiated) predisposition to abruptly increase vagal tone and collapse flaccidly rather than freeze or attempt to flee or fight in response to an approaching sharp object, a minor injury, or the sight of blood, polymorphism for the hemodynamically “paradoxical” flaccid- immobility in response to these stimuli may have increased some non-combatants’ chances of survival. This is consistent with the unusual age and sex pattern of fear-induced fainting. The Paleolithic-Threat hypothesis also predicts a link to various hypo-androgenic states (e.g. low dehydroxyepiandrosterone-sulfate. We offer five predictions testable via epidemiological, clinical, and ethological/primatological methods. The Paleolithic-Threat hypothesis has implications for research in the aftermath of man-made disasters, such as terrorism against civilians, a traumatic event in which this hypothesis predicts epidemics of fear-induced faintin

    Stressful Experiences in Children and Adolescents: Initial Report from the PSEI-NCPV Honolulu Study

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    As part of a federal study of the biology of stress and resilience, a comprehensive, structured stress-history interview (PSEI-NCPV) was administered to 307 participants recruited in Honolulu. A moderate correlation between childhood stress and current depression was found. A relatively high rate of "severe bullying/hazing," and a high mean stress-intensity reating for "blood-drawing induced anxiety" call for further research